By Anil Gore

As the area enters the recent millennium, mankind faces a chain ofnew prob lems, lots of them created through guy himself. those comprise overpopulation, air and water pollutants, worldwide warming, accumulation of greenhouse gases, darnage to the ozone layer and lack of biodiversity. might be those difficulties have been round even previous in an incipient level, yet they've got now assumed worldwide proportions and are uppermost within the minds of all. A typical con series is more suitable curiosity in sciences hooked up with those difficulties. Ecology is a box that's immensely priceless in realizing lots of them. within the seventies, nature conservation turned a priority of broad sections of society, well past the small staff of specialist ecologists. Species extinc tion and depletion of organic assets have been visible as significant threats to human welfare. It was once for this reason average for scientists from various disci plines to hunt purposes at the back of those advancements. We have been no exceptions and while chance to engage with ecologists as statistreal specialists got here, we chanced on ourselves examining an increasing number of of ecology and evolution ary biology. a number of years in the past we proposed beginning of an non-compulsory one semester path on statistical ecology for graduate scholars of facts of Pune University.

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Fourth column is the proportion of deaths qx = d x/ f x in the interval. Fifth column is Lx, the number of individuals multiplied by time units lived in the interval. Theoreticaily with unit intervals, but it is approximated by (f x + f x +d /2. This could be man years or insect days or whatever. 4) 37 SINGLE SPECIES POPULATIONS where W is t he la st ag e d ass be yond which everyone is dead. Naturally t he average remaining life für an indi vidu al alive at x , ex is given by ex = T x/ l x which is t he last column.

Condition for Stability of Limit Cycle Consider a difference equation of the form Nt+l = f(Nt) . Suppose its solution involves a limit cycle with m points denoted by N(o),N(l) , ... ,N(m-l). That is to say we have Nt = N t+m = N t+2m = N t+ 1 ... = Nt+l+m = Nt+l+2m = ... and these m values are distinct. This cycle is locally asymptotically stable (i. e. when the system is disturbed slightly, the cycle is reetered gradually) if the absolute value of the product of derivatives of f evaluated at these m points is less than unity i.

M. Let Px be the proportion of fem ales of age x t hat survive t o age x + 1. We have only m of these survival paramet ers Pi, i = 0, 1, ... , m - 1, since we assurne t hat Pm = O. All P/s are otherwise pos itive. lt+l from g, as follows: m nO,t+l =L Fini,t i=O and The first equation simply says that the t otal number of newborn equals the sum of number of females born to mothers in vari ous age groups. The second equation says that the number in age group j at time t + 1 are the survivors of age group j - 1 at time t .