A Dictionary of Philosophy by Antony G. Flew

By Antony G. Flew

This is a brand new, up to date and revised variation of a reference paintings that has proved precious as a device for the coed of philosophy, in addition to a guide for the overall reader. From the classical thinkers via Aquinas, Descartes, Spinoza, Kant, as much as the trendy age of Russell and Wittgenstein, this entire dictionary spans the personalities, terminology, and vocabulary of enormous quantities of philosophers over hundreds of thousands of years.

This moment version of an immense and helpful paintings has been thoroughly revised, and fifteen new significant articles were further. Now, greater than ever ahead of, A Dictionary of Philosophy is an important and well timed paintings for the fashionable scholar of thought.

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The latter has had, of course, numerous interpreters and has seemed many different things to many different people who have all invoked his authority to support their own varied dogmas. The Muslim philosophers were no exception and indeed, the 10th-century Rasii' it Ikhwiin ai-Sa/ii' (Epistles of the Brethren of Purity) quote a tradition about the prophet Muhammad in which he observes that Aristotle would have become a Muslim had he lived in the age of Muhammad (570--632). In the medieval Middle East, Aristotle's doctrines were viewed through Neoplatonic spectacles and these Epistles, which constitute, in Aristotle effect, a Neoplatonic Muslim encyclopedia, provide excellent examples of the cavalier fashion in which many of Aristotle's doctrines were treated: in one place, for example, substance is described, Neoplatonically, as an aspect of form.

Thomas Aquinas. It was assailed by *Hume, 21 first in Section XI of his Inquiry concerning Human Understanding and then in the posthumously published Dialogues concerning Natural Religion. The first important distinction is between, on the one hand, appealing to divine intervention and contrivance in order to explain some phenomenon for which it is believed that a purely secular science will forever prove unable to account and, on the other, urging that even the most universal and fundamental regularities uncovered by scientists cannot be intrinsic to the Universe itself, but must be imposed and sustained by God (see creation; Universe and universe).

Asymptotic. Denoting a line or series that approaches nearer and nearer to a curve or limit but will never reach that curve or limit within a finite distance. The moves of Achilles and the tortoise in Zeno's paradox are of this kind (see Zeno's paradoxes). ataraxia. ) The goal and inspiration of the Greek Sceptics. It was to be achieved by the calm and reasoned suspension of judgment (epoche) about contentious issues. atheism. The rejection of belief in God, whether on the grounds that it is meaningful but false to say that God exists, or, as the logical positivists held, that it is meaningless and hence neither true nor false (see logical positivism).

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