By Leslie A. Schuster
During this examine of the lifestyles and paintings of Saint-Nazaire's shipbuilding employees within the 30 years sooner than international struggle I, Schuster exhibits that the implications of business construction for staff differed sharply in accordance with their assets and reviews. She information the competing identities and divergent values maintained through shipbuilding employees, demonstrating that they have been fostered by way of the interplay among nation courses, business creation, and the traditions pursued within the neighborhood realm. 3rd Republic monetary rules for shipbuilding promoted unemployment and employee dependence on country officers over union leaders, and the asymmetric program of capitalist tools of construction intended a number of office studies that extra undercut organization.
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Additional info for A Workforce Divided: Community, Labor, and the State in Saint-Nazaire's Shipbuilding Industry, 1880-1910
The company struggled to stay afloat, in part by slashing freight rates 15 percent on its New York line, but to no avail. 32. New trade agreements promoted the establishment of more shipping companies, and by 1872 the North Atlantic trade, serviced by five companies in 1870, was divided among thirteen shippers. Colin, La Navigation Commerciale, 278-280; Rene Girault, "Place et Role des Echanges Exterieurs," in Histoire Economique et Sociale de la France, edited by Fernand Braudel and Ernest Labrousse, t.
Housing posed a particular problem; in "the new quarters, somewhat level streets lead through the marshy or untilled fields to the cesspools of. . 90 The population of Mean-Penhouet had increased by 1,000 in the five years following 1881, yet the district had seen no housing starts in over fifteen years. In fact, limited housing construction began only in the mid-1880s, furnishing 151 units for this district by 1891 and one large project that housed up to 500. "92 The Loire River was salty at Saint-Nazaire, which meant that the city did not have access to a steady and economical source of water.
47. Nantes industries depended upon the cheap transport of raw materials, including phosphates from Algeria and Tunis, pyrites from Spain, nitrates from Chile, wood and wheat from the United States, cocoa from Brazil, wood and phosphates from An Industry Builds a Town 33 Argentina, and copper from the Philippines. The subsidiary benefits of this trade monopoly included the establishment of significant industries, such as sugar refining, biscuit-making, rice processing, and the manufacture of tin cans, soap, and phosphates, which by 1900 employed 17,500 workers.