By James H. Green
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Extra info for Access Technologies: DSL and Cable
The upstream direction can use bins 6 to 38, which is about 25 to 163 kHz. 1 MHz) are used downstream. This method of modulation is inherently rate-adaptive because it uses all the available channels and ignores those that have poor transmission quality. For example, if an AM broadcast station is interfering with a band of frequencies, these bins are skipped. 413. The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and ITU also recognize the standard. CAP is closely related to QAM. The data rate is divided in two and modulated onto two orthogonal carriers phaseshifted 90˚ to one another.
High-speed DSL (HDSL), and to some degree single-pair DSL (SDSL), are used by the carriers themselves to provision point-to-point T1/E1, so the subscriber is insulated from these. The industry itself drops the first letter in its promotions, so users don’t have to know what variety of DSL they are getting. 1 lists the types of DSL and their approximate transmission ranges. The inability of ILECs to respond to service requests has hampered DSL’s growth. Many users have complained about long delays in receiving services they have ordered and then difficulties in getting the service to work.
Frame relay is a convenient and flexible protocol, but the access circuit is a problem for both carrier and the customer. Only two choices are available: 56/64 kbps or full T1/E1. The carriers pass the access cost along to the user, but they bear the cost of transporting the data to their switch node. Newer access technologies such as DSL are advantageous because they can concentrate the traffic into a broadband circuit much closer to the customers. Since DSL terminates at the wire center, frame relay frames can be routed over a cable pair to the wire center, where they are concentrated onto the LEC’s backbone and routed over a shared network to the IXC.