By Keith W. Waldron
This publication presents a finished and systematic reference at the complex biomass restoration and conversion tactics utilized in biorefineries. the 1st a part of the publication studies advancements in biorefining strategies, by way of a evaluation of alternative sorts of biorefinery platform. the second one 1/2 the e-book discusses the big variety of further worth items from biorefineries, from biofuel to biolubricants and bioadhesives.
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Additional info for Advances in biorefineries: Biomass and waste supply chain exploitation
2), rather than just focusing on the production stage. Upstream and downstream stages of the production, including the raw material employed, its use, end-use and disposal, are included, guaranteeing the true sustainability of a product (Anastas and Lankey, 2000). Improvements in today’s modern formulating-based industries at the production stage of the life cycle, are restricted (although moving towards renewable energy and zero waste is important and not trivial). 2 Illustration of a product’s life cycle.
The twentieth century saw the development of processes designed for the production of energy and organic chemicals based on the oil refinery. The twenty-first century must see the development of similar processes based on the biorefinery. The aim is to design an integrated process capable of generating a cost-effective source of energy and chemical feedstocks using biomass as a raw material. The key is to find alternative sources of carbon to oil, available in high quantities and process them using green chemical technologies, ensuring products obtained are truly green as well as sustainable.
2009). , 1990). , 2012). Biochemical and thermochemical processes complement each other well, the former being very selective but slow compared to the latter. , 2011). Processing times and space-time yields are high compared to thermochemical processes, but they are less energy intensive (Kamm and Kamm, 2004). , 2011). Biomass with a high acid, alkali metal and water content can be difficult to use in conventional thermal treatments: the high water content can render pyrolysis or gasification processes very difficult and the acidity of the feedstock can limit the applications of the pyrolysis oil obtained, for example.