By Antonio Di Vittorio
An financial historical past of Europe offers scholars with a entire creation to eu fiscal heritage from the fifteenth century to the current day. person chapters supply short references to earlier old sessions and occasions, with distinct cognizance given to center subject matters relating monetary improvement, and an research in their switch via time and house.
Core subject matters tested in each one interval include:
- the expanding prominence of industry
- international trade
- demand and provide dynamics
The specified constitution of this article permits scholars not just to achieve a company grounding within the long term evolution of the ecu economic system, but additionally presents an old evaluate of the commercial improvement of person international locations. person participants study the shift from the fashionable to the modern interval and supply a vast rationalization of the ancient roots of the issues that face modern-day monetary development.
This key text is fundamental studying for college students in economics, fiscal heritage, improvement economics and history.
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Additional info for An Economic History of Europe
Attempts at establishing vineyards and olive groves were not successful, but they did lead to increased production and certain improvements in some areas of Europe itself. Contact with other continents also led to signiﬁcant developments in livestock breeding. Large numbers of live animals were carried on the voyages, for two main reasons. First, animals, and particularly horses, were required by men-at-arms for transport and in battle, and second, live animals could provide food. It was not feasible to carry meat on board, since it was difﬁcult, if not impossible, to preserve it; but apart from the meat, live animals could provide other food products such as milk and eggs.
Beyond the strictly demographic data, signs of the expansion of the European population have been found in almost every ﬁeld of economic life. Studies of speciﬁc areas have shown how both the causes and the effects of population expansion differed in different areas but, in any case, conﬁrm the overall pattern. It has been calculated that in the sixteenth century the population of Europe completely recovered from the enormous losses that it had suffered in the pandemics of the fourteenth century, and even surpassed previous levels, reaching a ﬁgure of around 100 million inhabitants.
The next year, after crossing the Mediterranean, Pedro de Covilhão reached the Red Sea by land and went on to explore the west coast of India. The next voyage he made paved the way for Vasco da Gama, who reached Calicut by sailing round Africa between 1497 and 1499. Many ships and men were lost during this expedition because of disease, mutiny, storms and other difﬁculties, but the ships that did come back were laden with spices that more than compensated for the heavy cost of the voyage. Once they had seen the size of the proﬁts, the Portuguese, in as little as ten years, and using military force as necessary, managed to oust the Arabs az 1 15 z 21 her 1524 C ar Ves pu cci 9 Demarcation line 7 June 1494 Spanish Portuguese a Di 9 14 49 2 ri e r 1 5 3 4 7 157 6 ot 149 C o l u m b us 1 SOUTH AMERICA Verrazzano C a b ot 1 498 C ab ar Source: R.