Annotating, Extracting and Reasoning about Time and Events: by Frank Schilder, Graham Katz (auth.), Frank Schilder, Graham

By Frank Schilder, Graham Katz (auth.), Frank Schilder, Graham Katz, James Pustejovsky (eds.)

The Dagstuhl Seminar 05151 “Annotating, Extracting and Reasoning approximately Time and occasions” came about April 10–15, 2005 on the foreign convention and learn heart (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl, Germany. throughout the seminar, 17 top researchers from five di?erent nations offered present learn and mentioned open difficulties touching on annotation, temporal reasoning, and occasion identi?cation. The paintings provided at this seminar, including different past andongoingresearch,centersaroundanemergingde factostandardfortime and occasion annotation: TimeML. TimeML has lately been followed as a candidate for an ISO usual, and is at the moment being reviewed during this ability. on the seminar, the discussions focussed at the following 3 Time- comparable matters: utilizing the TimeML language e?ectively for constant annotation, opting for how invaluable such annotation is for additional processing,and describing modi?cations that are meant to be utilized to the normal for functions resembling question-answering and knowledge retrieval. Discussions on the Dagstuhl Seminar resulted in new researchideas, and a spread ofpublicationsandconferenceandworkshoppresentationsresulted.Thiscurrent choice of papers provides to the transforming into physique of labor on TimeML. It focusses on vital sub-areas inside of TimeML examine reminiscent of temporal annotation and temporal reasoning and issues to destiny study instructions which are the most important for additional progress.

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Additional info for Annotating, Extracting and Reasoning about Time and Events: International Seminar, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, April 10-15, 2005. Revised Papers

Sample text

In contrast, sentence (1b) in which the adverbial is in sentence-initial position has only the reading in which Mary works in Amsterdam at speech time and has done so for the preceding three years. Obviously, there are other ways to precisely specify the time of an event, as in (2): 2. Mary worked in Amsterdam from November 5, 1995 until August 12th of the following year. The question is whether authors make use of sentence-initial temporal adverbials, which pinpoint an event in time, as a tool to help the reader understand the order of the events described in the text.

Consider, for instance, the extreme paucity of positive examples over a range of categories. Fig. 1 (reproduced here, for convenience of reference, from [11]) shows the distribution of tlink and event types. These are the ‘targets’ of relational time analysis, capturing the temporal semantics above time expressions. As such, they are crucial for any analytical device. The numbers in the figure illustrate the highly uneven distribution of this category data. The numbers also reveal some of the variety and complexity of timeml annotation: the extensive typing of events, timex3’s and links introduces even more classes in an operational timeml typology.

Hitzeman Table 9. 05 Madding Crowd Financial Times 130 87 217 2 χ =0 df = 2 Not significant Of course, even a financial text may have some small narrative elements. I will now argue that it is the complexity of the event ordering in a narrative that correlates with greater initial-position adverbial use, where a judgment of the amount of flashback material and a tally of the use of past perfects will serve as a measure of complexity. First, note that the comparison of the narratives in Table 4 shows a significant difference in adverbial position in the three narratives.

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