By Joseph C. Pitt (auth.), Paul T. Durbin (eds.)
BACKGROUND: DEPARTMENTS, SPECIALIZATION, AND PROFESSIONALIZATION IN AMERICAN better schooling For over 1/2 its historical past, U.S. greater schooling grew to become out quite often cler gymen and attorneys. in retrospect on that interval, we would be tempted to imagine that this intended really expert education for the ministry or the perform of legislations. That, besides the fact that, was once now not the case. What a faculty schooling within the U.S. ready younger males (almost completely) for, from the founding of Harvard collage in 1636 in the course of the founding of hundreds and hundreds of denominational faculties within the first two-thirds of the 19th century, used to be management locally. Professionalization and specialization in simple terms started to take root, after which grew to become the dominant mode in U.S. larger schooling, within the interval approximately from 1860--1920. In next a long time, that looked as if it would many critics to sign the tip of what can be referred to as "education in wisdom," the training of leaders for a huge variety of duties. Professionalization, specialization, and departmentalization of upper schooling within the U.S. all started within the final area of the 19th century.
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Additional info for Broad and Narrow Interpretations of Philosophy of Technology
In the book I began by discussing the common features of intelligence (Philosophy of Technology, pp. 30-33), only later exploring the tensions between the needs of intelligence in pursuit of practical ends and the needs of intelligence aimed at theoretical ends. When Whitehead's figurative term for practical intelligence, the "Reason of Ulysses," was introduced, I was careful to state that I was naming a capacity and an aspect of intelligence. " The English language generously allows us to use the word "it" to refer to any contextually defined subject-matter, whether a "thing" or not, like the weather or a university or scientific method or (once defined) technology or intelligence.
There are coercive forces that push us (climate, weapons, plague, invention of means of production, natural resources) and there are attractive ideals that pull us (revulsion against slavery, the lure of general political enfranchisement, human rights, economic justice). To ignore the coercive forces, on the one hand, would be sentimental other-worldliness. It 40 FREDERICK FERRE would be to forget about the causal order in which we find ourselves emmeshed. Every event exists within a matrix of objective inheritance, as is central to Whitehead's analysis of reality.
We will see that attempts to box technology into a single kind of thing fail as new social technologies emerge with their own set of problems and concerns. To be of philosophical value we must abandon apriori metaphysical characterizations of technology and anything else, stop relying on superstitious religious values, and get to work learning about the thing we wish to understand. This is not to deny that we come to the study of anything with certain assumptions already in place. But the key to good scholarship and learning is that we allow those assumptions to be changed in the face of new knowledge.