Carbon-Carbon Coupling Reactions Catalyzed Heterogeneous

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2004, 45, 3881. ; Oehme, G. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 2001, 4445, 537. ; Pohl, M. ; Kosslick, H. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 2001, 4445, 517. ; Kwon, M. ; Park, C. ; Park, J. Tetrahedron Lett. 2004, 45, 7057. (121) Crudden, C. ; Lews, R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 10045. (122) Bedford, R. ; Singh, U. ; Walton, R. ; Williams, R. ; Davis, S. A. Chem. Mater. 2005, 17, 701. ; C¸ etinkaya, B. J. Inorg. Organomet. Polym. 2004, 14, 149. ; Leyva, A. Chem. Commun. 2003, 606. (125) Mubofu, E. ; Clark, J.

Future research in this field will help the understanding of the sometimes contradictory results in this field. It has been increasingly accepted that most heterogeneous Pd catalysts catalyze in a homogeneous way by leached Pd species, which can re-deposit when the reaction comes to an end. However, general conclusions are difficult to attain because in most cases the mechanism of a certain reaction is affected by the conditions very much. Although there are also other modern trends in Pd catalysis, such as polymer-supported Pd, Pd nanoparticles, or Pd clusters, it can be expected that the application of Pd supported by inorganic materials will gain increasing importance and application in future.

Molna´r, A Ä . Tetrahedron Lett. 2005, 46, 7725. -l. Chem. Commun. 2004, 1990. AN Chemical Reviews (148) Pro¨ckl, S. ; Gruber, M. ; Ko¨hler, K. Angew. , Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 1881. ; Blum, J. Org. Lett. 2004, 6, 925. ; DeVos, D. ; Jacobs, P. A. J. Catal. 2002, 209, 225. ; Forgo, P. Chem. Commun. 2003, 2626. ; Molna´r, A Ä . J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem. 2005, 229, 107. (153) Cai, M. ; Song, C. ; Huang, X. Synthesis 1997, 521. ; Song, C. React. Funct. Polym. 2004, 59, 81. -Y. Chin. J. Chem. 2005, 23, 443.

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