Cardiovascular MR Manual by Sven Plein

By Sven Plein

The booklet presents an advent to CMR imaging that's comprehensible and fascinated about the appropriate info had to utilizing CMR imaging in scientific perform. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has turn into a longtime imaging modality with an increasing variety of medical symptoms. whereas long ago the supply of CMR imaging used to be constrained to a couple professional centres the strategy is changing into extra generally to be had. so much clinicians accordingly have to have a common knowing of the diagnostic info that may be bought from CMR imaging, the symptoms for referral in addition to contraindications and boundaries of the tactic. For cardiologists and radiologists specifically, CMR imaging turns into a regimen diagnostic instrument and coaching curricula in Cardiology or Radiology mirror this pattern by means of more and more challenging education in CMR imaging.

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The spatial resolution of the reconstructed image therefore depends on the number of phase encoding steps, and is hence often limited by the image acquisition time (see box). Number of pixels in phase encoding direction is equal to the number of phase encoding steps, NP. Image acquisition time = TR x NP. If a greater spatial resolution is required in the phase encoding direction (for a fixed field of view), the number of acquired pixels NP (acquired image matrix size) must be increased and so must the number of phase encoding steps.

5 T, the Larmor frequency is 63 MHz. This is also known as the resonant frequency, as the protons only absorb energy (or resonate) at this characteristic frequency. 6 MHz/T for the proton). The RF field is normally applied as a short pulse, known as an RF pulse. Is the Larmor Frequency the Same for Other Nuclei? As we saw in Chap. 3, magnetic resonance imaging is normally performed using hydrogen nuclei, however, there are other MR-active nuclei such as the most common isotopes of phosphorus (31P) and sodium (23Na), as well as a much less common of carbon (13C).

Ridgway If the sampling frequency is set at this value, signals with frequencies outside the range ± Δf, (from outside the defined field of view) are not properly detected. In fact they appear to have the same frequency as a signal from a point within the defined field of view. If it is not dealt with, this would cause an artefact known as image aliasing, seen as ‘wrap around’ or ‘folding-in’ of features from outside the field of view into the image. In practice this is easily removed in the frequency encoding direction (see section on image aliasing in Chap.

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