By Jones D.W.

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For silicon electronvoltaics, it can be up to a few 100 mV. Larger voltages can be realized by connecting several cells in series. Since each electron-hole pair generation requires ≈3 eV, large current multiplication factors can be realized. For example, one β-particle from strontium-90 produces about 200,000 electron– hole pairs. However, one important drawback of junction-type nuclear batteries is that the lattice structure in the p–n junctions is susceptible to radiation damage, and subsequently, degradation in performance.

Betavoltaics are analogous to photovoltaics, where photons are used to generate EHPs near a semiconductor junction. Previous 147 Pm betavoltaic microbatteries employed planar silicon betavoltaics, and realized 100 μW/cc output power densities and 6–8 year lifetimes [11]. 5) were low both because of low radioisotope fuel ﬁll factors F F F (2%) and low energy conversion eﬃciency ηβ (2%). The fuel ﬁll factor was low because the β-electron self-absorption in the 147 Pm thin ﬁlm limits the maximum thin ﬁlm thickness to 6 μm for ηr > 85%.

18 The Allan deviation of fractional frequency ﬂuctuations for two values of λ = 106 and 1012 as a function of dead-time Tdead for diﬀerent values of integration time τ . . . . . . . . . 19 The Allan deviation of fractional frequency ﬂuctuations for λ = 109 as a function of dead-time Tdead for diﬀerent values of integration time τ . This compared with the Allan deviation of the original Poisson process (dotted-lines) . . . . . . 001, 1, and 100. Here λ = 20,000 Hz and the fraction drift of Tdead is 10−8 /s .