Ecological Landscape Design and Planning: The Mediterranean by Jala Makhzoumi

By Jala Makhzoumi

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It is also necessary to overcome that rigidity which has characterised the landscape planning system in the Mediterranean until now, by taking the direction of ecologically oriented research. Moreover, the already mentioned interrelationships between physical, biological and anthropic elements of landscape have to be investigated, creating a web of support for future decisions. Clearly, all these aspects of landscape cannot be considered separately. A meeting ground between the different disciplines concerned with the subject has to be sought, allowing the investigation of the entire landscape process.

6) calls for non-conventional resources, such as non-renewable fossil aquifers, recycling of used water, multiple water uses, reduction of losses to the sea and, as a last resort, desalination (Grenon and Batisse, 1989). Tourism generates a sharp, seasonal peak demand which is largely concomitant with the irrigation and drinking-water demand of local communities. This seasonal pattern exacerbates the tensions between requirements and resources, especially in the summer. Moreover, precipitation is not only uneven in its seasonal distribution but often torrential, with run-off resulting in intense soil erosion (Fig.

The eastern Mediterranean was among the first places where stock farming, cereal production and domesticated plant cultivation developed. Thus, evolutionary processes of ecosystem specification and ecotype variation intensified (Naveh and Lieberman, 1990) and the seminatural landscape evolved. The Neolithic revolution was marked by the agricultural transformation and the breeding of domestic animals. While the former led to the clearing of forests in fertile lowlands and eventually to the terracing of arable slopes, the latter led to the periodic exposure of the remaining sclerophyll forests to fire, as a means of increasing edible herbs and plants for pasture.

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