By Peter Weygoldt (auth.), Jan Bruin, L. P. S. van der Geest, M. W. Sabelis (eds.)
Acarology is at the circulation! for a very long time the improvement of Acarology as a box of organic technological know-how has been ruled by way of systematists and utilized scientists. within the final 15 years, besides the fact that, Acari were more and more famous as hugely appropriate for the trying out of theories in ecological and evolutionary sciences. The turning out to be curiosity from evolutionary and molecular biologists and from inhabitants and group ecologists in mites and ticks has a powerful impetus at the box of Acarology, and has already resulted in major growth. This e-book comprises many chapters that illustrate the hot development in - in general evolutionary and ecological facets of - Acarology.
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Additional info for Ecology and Evolution of the Acari: Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium of the European Association of Acarologists 1–5 July 1996, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
0.. a. E.. Mel Petro Mach. TIler. Lep. Eph. Od. Onh. carrying tilreads (spinneret! c ECTOGNATHA e Ps OQ, a. ~ III is c: .!! Figure 3. Evolutionary transformation of spermatophores and the reproductive behaviour within the Antennata. For details about the phylogeny and course of transformation see text. ). , ~ b =:t. ~ ~ ~ § is:: ~ tv tv Canalized pathways of change and constraints in the evolution of reproductive modes (4) Miniaturization of the spermatophore and immobilization of the spermatozoa in the spermatophore - Note, however, that within the Arachnida immobilization of sperm cells happened also in groups which produce large spermatophores or copulate (Baccetti, 1985; Alberti, 1995).
How can this space for adaptation despite fixation by constraints be explained? There are obviously two main strategies for adaptive transformation of constraintfixed organismal systems. In one strategy, new adaptations indeed leave the existing constraints of interaction of the pattern unaltered. There are three possible pathways: (1) New adaptive characters may simply be added to the last step of an evolutionary sequence of change, thus leaving earlierevolved constraints of interaction within the pattern unaltered.
This can take place without conflicts to earlierevolved constraints of interaction, if only the last transformation step or even the last sequence of steps of an evolutionary cascade is either reduced or is replaced by new characters (Fig. 11). Even complex elements of a character pattern can be replaced in this way, and a real repatterning may happen. , in those groups of the Hydrachnidia in which the mode to deposit large fields of spermatophores changed to semidirect or direct sperm transfer (Fig.