Ecology - Concepts and Applns by M. Molles

By M. Molles

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1960) Innate and environmental dispersal in individual vertebrates. American Midland Naturalist, 63, 152-61. Kalela, O. ). ), 55, 1-72. B. (1974) Population genetics: reevaluation of genetic variation. Science, 184,452-4. Lack, D. (1968) Ecological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds, Metheun, London, 409 pp. Z. Jr (1962) Emigration as a possible mechanism permitting the regulation of population density below carrying capacity. American Naturalist, 96,29-33. Z. B. Golley, K. Petrusewicz and L. Ryszkowski), Cambridge University Press, London, pp.

G. Patton and Yang, 1977; Grant, 1980; Pounds and Jackson, 1981; Dillon, 1984); such correlations are more obviously explained by the homogenizing effect of gene flow than by any increase in environmental differences with physical distance. More directly, Pounds and Jackson (1981) have shown that populations of the fence lizard, Sceloporu5 grammicu5, which are separated by rivers differ more in morphology than populations a similar distance apart, but not separated by major barriers to dispersal.

4). Nevertheless, these clines are usually much narrower than the species' range, and give direct evidence that gene flow does not prevent selection from producing local adaptation and divergence. The effects of drift are harder to demonstrate: though many analyses implicitly assume that spatial differentiation is caused by drift, it is hard to distinguish the action of drift from that of divergent selection. However, in a few cases, spatial differentiation has been shown to be greater in regions of low neighbourhood size (Cavalli Sforza, 1969; Selander, 1970; Patton and Feder, 1978), indicating that it has been produced by sampling drift.

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