Environmental radiation measurements: Recommendations of the by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

From the preface: "In contemporary years, the necessity for exact, trustworthy and interpretable measurements of environmental radiation and radioactivity has elevated gradually. Such standards because the evaluation of publicity to guy from average and man-made assets, the overview of compliance with governmental laws, wisdom of the flow and retention of artificial radionuclides because of man's use of such fabrics, and the research of geological techniques and atmospheric phenomena have all contributed to this need.This record provides a unified and systematic attention of environmental radiation measurements, particularly with appreciate to the identity and characterization of small radiation fields and small concentrations of particular radionuclides, and the even smaller diversifications of adjustments in them. ..."

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Additional resources for Environmental radiation measurements: Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP report ; no. 50)

Example text

Fig. 2-2. in an equivalent thickness (g cm+) of less dense materials because of the reduced decay. However, denser materials more strongly attenuate the electrons produced by muon decay in air. These decay electrons are not replaced by electrons produced in the media and the total charged particle intensity and dose rate are therefore reduced approximately 30 percent by 50 g of typical building materials and only by about 5 percent by each additional equivalent thickness. The attenuation by various types of buildings ranges from nearly zero for woodframe houses to more than 50 percent for lower floors in multi-storied office or apartment buildings.

These decay electrons are not replaced by electrons produced in the media and the total charged particle intensity and dose rate are therefore reduced approximately 30 percent by 50 g of typical building materials and only by about 5 percent by each additional equivalent thickness. The attenuation by various types of buildings ranges from nearly zero for woodframe houses to more than 50 percent for lower floors in multi-storied office or apartment buildings. Mass thicknesses of the order of lo4 g cm-2 are required to reduce the muon component to a few percent of its outdoor intensity.

Uniformly-distributed natural radionuclides and for various depth distributions of fallout radionuclides. Table 2-15 and 2-17 also illustrate the se*itivity of unscattered hux and total exposure rate to changes in sdil density, particularly water content. The calculations are based on a water content of 10 percent by weight, which is reasonably typical for temperate regions. Varying the proportions of water from 0 to 25 percent by weight d m not change the effective gamma attenuation coefficients and scattering cross sections by more than a few percent (Becket al.

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