Feigenbaum’s Echocardiography by coll.

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Furthermore, because echocardiography is a dynamic imaging technique, resolution has at least two components: spatial and temporal. Spatial resolution is defined as the smallest distance that two targets must be separated by for the system to distinguish between them. , one behind the other), and lateral resolution refers to the ability to distinguish two reflectors that lie side by side relative to the beam (Fig. 14). The primary determinants of axial resolution are the frequency of the transmitted wave and, more importantly, its effect on pulse length.

In some cases, the source of reverberations is not apparent. These are particularly troublesome and frequently result in misinterpretation of the image. Another potential artifact is shadowing. Its appearance, in some ways, is the opposite of a reverberation. 26 a series of echoes behind the source of the artifact, shadowing results in the absence of echoes directly behind the target (Fig. 31). Shadowing occurs when one attempts to visualize structures beyond a region of unusually high attenuation, such as a strong reflector.

In this case, the second line of echoes (far arrows) is twice the distance from the transducer as the actual pericardial echoes. B: A second lumen appears just distal to the descending aorta (DA) in this subcostal view. The illusion of a second vessel was apparent with two-dimensional imaging (*, B) and color Doppler imaging (C). One additional source of artifact is termed near field clutter. This problem, also referred to as “ringdown artifact,” arises from high-amplitude oscillations of the piezoelectric elements.

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