Functional monomers anf polymers by Kiichi Takemoto, Raphael M. Ottenbrite, Mikiharu Kamachi

By Kiichi Takemoto, Raphael M. Ottenbrite, Mikiharu Kamachi

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A true solution: the solute, that is, must be dispersed as simple molecules and not as molecular aggregates like soap micelles. These conditions were obtained by Donnan and Barker (Proc. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF GIBBS' 35 THEOREM Roy. SOG. A, LXXXV. 557, 1911), who employed a solution of nonylic acid. Their method of determining T was ingenious. A slow stream up through the solution, and the number and diameter of the bubbles was determined. Adsorption of solute occurred at the surface of each bubble, and the quantity so adsorbed was carried with the bubble into an upper part of the experimental Diffusion of solute back into the lower portion of the vessel.

Corre- spondingly in the case of the liquid- vapour surface the molar free energy is proportional to the product of a- and the surface occupied (M\* j , where M is the molecular weight and p the density of the liquid. ) Instead of where K is T we write T e T and obtain a universal constant of approximate value 2'2. StJKFACE TENSION OF LIQUIDS 26 Eamsay and Shields tested liquids and modified it to a- this relation for a large f j = K (T T 8), surface energy appeared to vanish at a temperature the number of since the molar somewhat below critical point.

At the critical temperature the distinction between the two phases and consequently the surface tension disappears. , in the case of metals the surface tensions may exceed a thousand. liquefied EOTVOS LAW 25 Ramsay and Shields and Walden concluded from ments that a linear relation held almost up to the and write where T and critical point T are Van 8 constants. their experi- the critical and observation temperatures, c and der Waals in his theory of capillarity developed the equation 'V-FJ- Hence ^ df^ 2 and -j~ vanishes with

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