By Bianca J. Smith, Mark Woodward
The conventional Islamic boarding colleges referred to as pesantren are an important centres of Muslim studying and tradition inside Indonesia, yet their cultural importance has been underexplored. This publication is the 1st to discover understandings of gender and Islam in pesantren and Sufi orders in Indonesia. by means of contemplating those exact yet similar Muslim gender cultures in Java, Lombok and Aceh, the e-book examines the wider functionality of pesantren as a strength for either redefining current modes of Muslim subjectivity and cultivating new ones. It demonstrates how, as Muslim ladies upward push to positions of energy and authority during this patriarchal area, they problem and negotiate "normative" Muslim patriarchy whereas developing their very own Muslim "authenticity." The publication is going directly to query the comparability of Indonesian Islam with the Arab center East, demanding the adoption of expatriate and diasporic center jap Muslim feminist discourses and secular western feminist analyses in Indonesian contexts. in accordance with vast fieldwork, the publication explores configurations of girl management, energy, feminisms and sexuality to bare a number of Muslim selves in pesantren and Sufi orders, not just as centres of studying, but in addition as social areas during which the interaction of gender, politics, prestige, strength and piety form the process existence.
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Extra resources for Gender and Power in Indonesian Islam: Leaders, feminists, Sufis and pesantren selves
Smith and Saipul Hamdi This chapter develops understandings of interactions between Suﬁs and Salaﬁs as ﬂuid by moving beyond discourses on transnational Salaﬁ movements to examine how Salaﬁ ideas are strategically adopted by Muslim majorities in pesantren and Suﬁ orders. 3 Intra-Muslim debates about female leadership reﬂect the variety of ways gender is interpreted in Islam and suggest that culture plays a critical role in decisionmaking processes about what it means to be Muslim. Cultural notions of spiritual power may play roles in determining leadership succession in Suﬁ orders and pesantren (Smith 2012).
Smith and Saipul Hamdi support Rauhun as the legitimate leader. With Maulana Syeikh’s death, NW was left without an oﬃcial spiritual leader, leaving space for the community to interpret which of the Syeikh’s two daughters had inherited his ilmu (Hamdi 2011). The election for head of NW held on 26 July 1998 in Praya, Lombok was a precursor to the violence that followed. When Raehanun’s name emerged as a candidate alongside her male uncle, Ma’sum Ahmad (who was acting head of the organization at that time), pro-Rauhun supporters were insulted and walked out based on the charge that Raehanun is a woman, and women cannot be leaders according to the Syaﬁ’i school of law (Hadi 2010; Hamdi 2011; Mugni 2005).
However, gender did matter when Raehanun succeeded the leadership, yet it was the ways in which it mattered that was contested. Within this contestation over female leadership, ways of being Muslim and gendered remained consistent with Islamic values in both factions of the split organization. Both factions continue to profess an Islamic worldview that values docile Islamic forms of femininity and both must negotiate these with the array of divergent Islamic discourses encroaching on their ﬁelds.