Grating-Based X-Ray Phase-Contrast Mammography by Kai Hermann Scherer

By Kai Hermann Scherer

This thesis bargains an available advisor to biomedical phase-contrast imaging with over 20 radiographic illustrations. It specializes in examine to enhance radiography, and especially mammography purposes, by utilizing a singular X-ray imaging modality that exploits the wave-nature of X-rays, instead of simply their absorption in tissue. additional, it explores a extensive variety of power purposes – from the evaluation of breast melanoma and the assessment of microcalcification clusters, to the exam of renal stones.

X-ray imaging is an integral instrument in smooth scientific diagnostics, and levels from easy radiography functions to complicated CT imaging protocols. This novel phase-contrast procedure has the capability to carry considerably better diagnostic info, additionally and particularly in circumstances the place mammography is used for screening reasons. The thesis relies on a number of reviews carried out through the writer – operating in shut interdisciplinary cooperation with doctors at collage clinics in Munich – and effectively demonstrates this diagnostic strength in pre-clinical experiments.

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The overall amount of calcium, given by the number and size of grains, is fixed for all configurations. The absorption signal is non-sensitive towards variations in the grain size. In comparison, the visibility signal yields a minimum for grains which are similar in size to the analyser grating period (green), even if strongly exceeding the spatial resolution (red) of the interferometer. 48) 2 2 where 2πp2d corresponds to a setup-specific pre-factor. More precisely, Strobl et al. 2 showed that the inter-grating distance, beam energy and analyser grating period determine the so-called “autocorrelation length” of the interferometer [27].

Breast cancer therapy is increasingly individualized depending on tumor type and biology, size, nodal state, distant metastases as well as age of the patient. Nevertheless, the standard therapy of breast cancer is the surgical removal of the lesions and, if indicated, an adjuvant or neoadjuvant medication with cytostatica. Although also affecting healthy cells, cytostatica predominately destroy cancerous cells, which 34 2 Introduction and Theoretical Background yield a strongly increased self-replication rate.

Optica Acta, 16, 281– 287. 10. , & Teich, M. (2007). Fundamentals of photonics. Hoboken: Wiley-Interscience. 11. , et al. (1971). On Fresnel diffraction by one-dimensional periodic objects, with application to structure determination of phase objects. Optica Acta, 18, 677–682. 12. , & Ojeda-Castaneda, J. (1994). Multilevel phase gratings for array illuminators. Applied Optics, 33, 5925–5931. 13. , & Pfeiffer, F. (2006). Tomography with grating interferometers at low-brilliance sources. Proceedings of SPIE, 6318, 63180.

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