By Joseph Sataloff
Overlaying all features of the anatomy, body structure, analysis, and remedy of listening to loss, this Fourth version bargains new details on present diagnostic applied sciences, the most recent ideas within the scientific administration of listening to impairment, the care and administration of tinnitus, and the medical keep an eye on of disequilibrium-offering a finished evaluation of the numerous afflictions that impair the listening to of adults and youngsters.
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Additional resources for Hearing Loss, Fourth Edition
The term “sensory” hearing loss is applied when the damage is localized in the inner ear. Useful synonyms are “cochlear” or “inner-ear” hearing loss. “Neural” hearing loss is the correct term to use when the damage is in the auditory nerve, anywhere between its fibers at the base of the hair cells and the auditory nuclei. This area includes the bipolar ganglion of the eighth cranial nerve. ” These names are useful if applied appropriately and meaningfully, but too often they are used improperly.
1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Ear The ear is divided into three major anatomical divisions: (a) the outer ear, (b) the middle ear, and (c) the inner ear (Fig. 1). The outer ear has two parts: (a) the “trumpet-shaped” apparatus on the side of the head called the auricle or pinna and (b) the tube leading from the auricle into the temporal bone called the external auditory canal. This opening is called the meatus and external auditory canal. The tympanic membrane, or “eardrum,” stretches across the inner end of the external ear canal separating the outer ear from the middle ear.
A diligent search should be made for fluid in the middle ear if bone conduction is reduced slightly in an otherwise classic picture of conductive hearing loss. There are several ways to detect fluid in the middle ear. If a well-defined fluid level is seen through the eardrum, the diagnosis is simple. It should be borne in mind, however, that strands of scar tissue in the drum and bands in the middle ear can stimulate a fluid level. It helps to see whether the apparent fluid level stays in position while the patient’s head is bent forward and backward.