HISTORICAL GRAMMAR OF JAPANESE by G. B. Sansom

By G. B. Sansom

First released in 1928, this path-breaking paintings continues to be of value and curiosity to eastern students and linguists.

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Extra info for HISTORICAL GRAMMAR OF JAPANESE

Example text

Another such instance is the verb ryoru, 'to cook', which is a barbarous and comparatively recent formation from the Chinese compound ryori j$ J§ 'cookery'. But such formations are quite exceptional, and could in any case only occur when the terminal sound of a Chinese word was similar to the termination of a Japanese verb or adjective. Thus it would be impossible without doing violence to both languages, to convert Chinese words like gyo, kwai or kwan into typical verb-forms, which must like yuku, yuki, yuka, &c, end in vowels, or adjective forms which must, like yoki, yoshi, end in the syllables ki or shi.

The Turkish verb etmek, to do ', is suffixed to Arabic substantives and then conjugated past tense, to say respectfully in the usual way, e. g. arzetmek, future, arzedejek, and so on. arzetdim ' ' ' ; ; HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR 'cherished', and so on. In many cases the Chinese word 36 retains its character as a noun so fully that it is distinguished as being in the objective case by means of the appropriate particle so that we can say both kensa suru, 'to inspect', : and kensa wo suru, 'to difference of emphasis.

Character stands for several meanings which in Japanese are need not look further than conveyed by different words. which we have been discussing. It stands for this same one Chinese word, sheng, that has the meanings 'to grow', 'fresh', and 'to live', expressed in Japanese respectively by the words haeru, narna, and ikiru. For haeru, 'to grow', the Japanese could find no more suitable symbol than ^, which For nama, they accordingly adopted for that purpose. again was the only appropriate character, and 'fresh', was therefore used to represent that word.

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