By M. Shahin
This ebook offers a special insurance of the hydrology and water assets of Africa, together with the neighbouring islands. The contents are coated in fourteen chapters. the amount encompasses a CD-ROM with uncooked meteorological, hydrometric and water caliber facts. Emphasis is laid at the elements of the hydrological cycle; precipitation, evaporation and runoff of either land and insular Africa. The hydrologic features of 16 rivers and wadi basins of alternative sizes are awarded and mentioned. additionally, hydrology of lakes, and different wetlands and garage reservoirs are provided. moreover, the critical groundwater aquifers are reviewed. final, yet now not least, the position of water assets within the total improvement of Africa is highlighted. viewers: This quantity should still entice researchers and pros operating within the fields of civil and agricultural engineering, actual geography, African experiences, and people drawn to floor and groundwater assets in Africa. additional info on extras.springer.com uncooked meteorological, hydrometric and water caliber facts can be found on http://extras.springer.com
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Extra resources for Hydrology and Water Resources of Africa (Water Science and Technology Library)
The steppe region is characterized by its ferruginous soils. These are often alkaline, but may become slightly acidic if heavily leached with water. The natural vegetation here is a thorny Acacia and certain local grasses. This natural vegetation supports the nomadic pastoral economy in the Sahel region, which is the steppe region situated in northwest and part of West Africa. Steppe is usually classified into semi-desert steppe and wooded steppe. The latter is an extension of the woodland and savanna.
Systems can be changed and rebuilt as change and repair become necessary, by groups of natives rather than by outside contractors and expensive machinery. Water management schemes are unavoidable for increasing the land return in the form of foodstuff. This return is basically and urgently needed to ensure a bottom line of food self-sufficency. They can also be used for energy production and other purposes if they are brilliantly designed. As such it is fairly safe to conclude that proper management of water resources is one of the major issues of relevance to the overall, especially the economic, development of Africa.
52, respectively. 45 for b (Sadek, 1992). Again, Eq. 07 for the albedo of the lake surface and for used the expression: where c = fractional cloud cover and the rest as before. The expression for net long wave radiation used by Yin and Nicholson (1998) is that developed by Budyko (1974) and written as: where (Centigrade+ 273) and is the saturated vapour pressure for the monthly surface temperature Substituting the climatic data of Lake Victoria in Eqs. 12 the total net radiation has been found in the order throughout the year.