By Charles S. Maier
Looking for balance: Explorations in old Political economic system ponders the problem of ways Western commercial societies overcame significant demanding situations to political and financial balance within the 20th century. Successive essays ask: what ideological messages did American effect transmit to Europe after global warfare I, on the other hand after international conflict II? Did Nazis and Italian fascists percentage an monetary ideology or impose a distinct financial system within the interwar interval and through global struggle II? How do their accomplishments stack up relatively opposed to these of the liberal democracies? After 1945, what used to be the connection among techniques of productiveness and sophistication department? How have the foremost studies of twentieth-century inflation arisen out of sophistication and interest-group contention? most widely, what has been the illustration of pursuits in capitalist political economies?
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Extra resources for In Search of Stability: Explorations in Historical Political Economy
The model of social engineering indicated that internal disputes about power could be sublimated into technical questions of optimalization. Fascism added the concept that class disputes must dissolve before overriding clashes among nation-states: Italy as a whole was a proletariat among European powers. Secondly, if Saint-Simonianism stressed the contribution of a vanguard of entrepreneurs, and Taylorism spotlighted the engineers, fascism drew upon other potential leaders. Arising out of a fervent interventionist commitment, it posited the combattenti as a directing elite by virtue of their trials at the front.
The tentative character of the effort and its lack of real anchorage as a technocracy were demonstrated by the fate of the groups during the party disputes of 1923-4. Massimo Rocca, former journalist and champion of the gruppi di competenza, was also the exponent of fascist 'revisionism'. 41 It was prepared to sacrifice ideological purity for the sake of collaboration with the liberal elites. This was a line Mussolini found useful to encourage during the initial year or so of his rule, especially as he looked forward to an electoral campaign that would consolidate his position in parlia39 Camillo Pellizzi, Problemi e realta del fascismo (Florence, 1924), 165.
1947); C. B. , Scientific Management. , Harvard University Press, 1914). On Taylor himself: F. B. Copley, Frederick Winslow Taylor (New York: Taylor Society, 1923). For the controversies over application: H. G. J. : Harvard University Press, i960). Society as factory 25 The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, founded in 1880, represented a profession significantly different in origin from European counterparts such as the polytechniciens of France. In France and Germany engineering schools had originally been sponsored by royal, revolutionary, or Bonapartist regimes concerned with national wealth and power.