By Gaetano Joseph Celenza
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Additional info for Industrial Waste Treatment Process Engineering: Biological Processes
2. (5) Alpha factor(6) Beta factor(7) Mixing efficiency(8) Appropriate reactor geometry on the basis of clean water, expressed in terms of air capacity or oxygen output, depending on the specific device. The rated capacity must be corrected to the waste water oxygen saturation value (b ratio) and the transfer rate (a ratio), both defined in the Basic Concepts section. The value of these constants are obtained in reactor studies using common laboratory procedures (Standard Methods). Regardless of the manner of obtaining data, the design criteria listed in Table 2 are required.
Although very effective and commonly employed, surface units have some serious operating limitations. They present a special problem in optimizing oxygen transfer, mixing, and radius of influence because they cannot be independently controlled. When applied to high industrial organic loadings one of the operating variables will dominate the design criteria; the others are compromised to achieve the controlling objective. In addition, sprays generated from these units could create a serious problem in cold climates, causing icing of motors and working areas.
Varying oxygen demand makes diffuser location and pattern a major design consideration. Process economics favor low diffuser density, whereas some investigative data suggest increased density improves oxygen transfer efficiency . The selected installation pattern must provide adequate spacing to check, service, and clean the units. In summary, diffuser effectiveness depends on its oxygen transfer characteristics, operating characteristics, turndown limits, physical limits, and contribution to the total basin performance.