By Boon-Hua Ooi (auth.), Jaeho Lee, Mike Barley (eds.)
Five years in the past, with pleasure and uncertainty, we witnessed the beginning of PRIMA (Paci?c Rim foreign Workshop on Multi-Agents). The ?rst PRIMA in 1998 has now grown into PRIMA 2003, the sixth Paci?c Rim Inter- tional Workshop on Multi-Agents in Seoul, Korea. in the course of a interval of ?ve years, the inspiration of agent examine has grown a lot that we pay attention the time period agent every day. a number of ?elds equivalent to company, the internet, software program engineering, online video games and such are actually utilizing the time period agent as a placeholder, like the time period item is utilized in the object-oriented paradigm. nonetheless, the examine zone has prolonged towards actual purposes, reminiscent of the Semantic net and ubiquitous computing. the subjects of PRIMA 2003 re?ected the next tendencies: – agent-based digital trade, auctions and markets – agent architectures and their purposes – agent communique languages, conversation and interplay protocols – agent ontologies – agent programming languages, frameworks and toolkits – agentcities – brokers and grid computing – brokers and peer computing –agentsandtheSemanticWeb – brokers and internet prone – arti?cial social structures – con?ict answer and negotiation – overview of multi-agent platforms – languages and methods for describing (multi-)agent platforms – meta modeling and meta reasoning – multi-agent making plans and studying – multi-agent structures and their functions – social reasoning, agent modeling, and association – criteria for brokers and multi-agent platforms – groups and coalitions – ubiquitous agents
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Additional resources for Intelligent Agents and Multi-Agent Systems: 6th Pacific Rim International Workshop on Multi-Agents, PRIMA 2003, Seoul, Korea, November 7-8, 2003. Proceedings
A non-primitive task node has a sequence of lower-level task nodes that expresses the refinement of the used plan. An example structure is illustrated in Fig. 2. A number of refinements had been generated to achieve each non-primitive task, but only one was actually executed. An annotation is a description of recorded data that is retained by planner and executor (see (b) and (c) in the previous section). The annotation which corresponds to an item of performance data is a pair of an attribute and value, although relationships between tasks and between tasks and environment factors are denoted by logical formulae: some important annotations will be described in this section.
Akashi conclude that a conflict will actually occur). Next, they proceed to the primitive layer to create their primitive plans. After some communications between the agents, they find two disjoint routes pass through the gap so they can pass through simultaneously. However, in the actual execution of the plans, they will record higher costs than expected ones when they pass through the gap. The objective of this paper is to give the agents a way of drawing on experience in solving similar problems by using past plans and experience in the form of the recorded data on costs and resource usage.
2 Types of Resources We introduce two pairs of resource properties: divisible/exclusive and consumable/nonconsumable. The amount of a resource and the duration over which the resource is used are also important concepts in describing resources. 42 T. Sugawara, S. Kurihara, and O. Akashi – Divisibility: Divisible: This property means that a resource can be shared among agents. For example, 1 A of current can be divided into 500 mA for each of two robots. Exclusive: This property means that a resource is used exclusively by a single particular agent and cannot be shared with other agents while it is in use.