By Bruce A. Moyer
Reflecting the sustained and various experimental momentum within the box of ion trade, quantity sixteen summarizes innovative advances on par with the always high-level study comparable by means of this sequence. this article discusses the kinetics, theoretical types, experimental results/supporting info, and functions for isothermal supersaturation, steel separation through pH-induced parametric pumping, and for ultrapure water (UPW). themes additionally contain the engineering of activated carbons and carbonaceous fabrics for removing of steel ions; hydrophobic ionizable natural compounds (HIOCs); the sorption/desorption mechanisms of natural micropollutants in water; and ion alternate strategy variables on perchlorate treatment.
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Extra resources for Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction: A Series of Advances, Volume 19
7 kg force). Upon activation, the activated carbon samples show an increase in the BET surface area values as the degree of activation increases; for samples A1–A5, surface area increased from 515 m2=g for sample A1 to 782 m2=g for sample A5. The activated carbon MN500HS-C1-A6 sample shows a sudden drop in mechanical strength as the BET surface area value approached $1200 m2=g. Table 6 Activation Conditions and Selected Physical Properties of Activated Carbons Sample MN500HS MN500HS-C1 MN500HS-C1-A1 MN500HS-C1-A2 MN500HS-C1-A3 MN500HS-C1-A4 MN500HS-C1-A5 MN500HS-C1-A6 BET Pore Activation Activation Yield surface area volume Mechanical (m2=g) (cm3=g) force (kg) temp.
9). The results in Table 11 suggest that the proportion of phenolic-type functional groups contributing to the total amount of noncarbonyl functional groups decreases with increasing oxidation severity for the acid-oxidized carbons, whereas their carboxylic functionality content remains relatively constant at around 50%. In general, thermal treatment of carbons in an oxidizing atmosphere (hot air) leads to a smaller increase in the total acidity of the ﬁnal material in comparison with nitric acid treatment.
Electrochemical oxidation was an effective technique to incorporate carboxyl-type acidic groups on the surface of active carbon ﬁber. 3 for TC-66C-elec-ox samples. , are anion exchangers) at pH values less than the point of zero charge. The characteristic feature of the oxidized carbons is the wide range of ionization constants within each type of group (in particular, carboxyl and phenolic groups). This may be due to different energy states on the surface where identical functional groups are situated .