By Ernst H. Jahr
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Extra resources for Language Conflict and Language Planning
Still, that year, 1860, marks the commencement of the involvement of the Parliament and the government in the endeavour to solve the linguistic problems of the new nation. From that time onwards, language planning (understood as norm regulation) has been treated as a political matter to a higher degree in Norway than in any other western country. In 1862, the very first spelling reform of Dano-Norwegian was issued as a governmental decree. e. the Ministry of Church and Education) or Parliament issued several edicts on what kind of spelling was to be used in schools.
The language spoken by the educated upper classes in formal situations was some sort of spelling pronunciation of written Danish. Danish was the written medium in schools, spoken Danish, of course, being Norwegianized through pronunciation, though many teachers used a spelling pronunciation. Informal speech in the upper classes was a kind of compromise between the standard used in formal situations and the local dialects. During the first decades after independence was won from Denmark in 1814, there was an increasing feeling in favor of establishing a national Norwegian language.
Copenhagen: Akademisk forlag, Universitetsforlaget Kebenhavn. Hanto, Kristian Ihle 1986 Ideologiar i norsk mälreising [Ideologies in Norwegian language movements], Oslo: Novus. Haugen, Einar 1966 Language conflict and language planning: The case of modern Norwegian. : Harvard University Press. 1968 Riksspräk og folkemäl. Norsk spräkhistorie i det 20. ärhundre [Standard language and folk speech: A history of the Norwegian language in the 20th century], Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. 1971 "Instrumentalism in language planning", in: Joan Rubin and Björn Η.