By Alexander A. Kokhanovsky
This ebook is to proceed the "Light Scattering stories" sequence dedicated to smooth wisdom and milestones in either experimental and theoretical options on the topic of gentle scattering and radiative shipping difficulties. It offers a necessary photograph of modern advancements within the region of distant sensing and radiative move. The paintings has functions to extra facilitate reviews in mild scattering media optics and be of value for researchers throughout numerous medical fields together with astronomy, meteorology and geophysics.
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10. Examples of spectral surface albedos for various surface types as functions of wavelength. These data were collected during spring in OK, USA. (Data courtesy of Z. ) and often do not distinguish between direct and diﬀuse albedos (but again, this partition actually requires solution of the radiative transfer algorithm). Owing to the fact that roughly two-thirds of Earth’s surface is covered by open water, albedo of water surfaces is an important quantity in a global model. , Cox and Munk 1956; Payne 1972; Preisendorfer and Mobley 1986).
Likewise, it is not known whether closed-form solutions exist for a gamma-weighted four-stream. 22 H. W. Barker To conclude, the attraction of this approach is that as long as one is willing to accept that the underlying distribution of τ can be represented by pγ (τ ), and that the ICA is a reasonable benchmark for GCM-style radiative transfer models to aim for, the GWTSA represents, by deﬁnition, an exact solution for single layers. The GWTSA, for both SW and LW radiation, is being used currently in the CCCma GCM (Li and Barker 2002; Li et al.
50) Rcld ≈ Rpp (ητ ). Cahalan et al. 7 for marine boundary layer clouds oﬀ the coast of California and on Porto Santo Island. These estimates were obtained by compositing several days’ worth of 30 s or 1 Solar radiative transfer and global climate modelling 23 1 min observations of cloud LWP inferred from microwave radiometer data. By compositing data, however, the PPH bias can be made arbitrarily large as more and more variability becomes unresolved and subsumed into η, or any other measure of variance.