By Rajindar Singh, E.J. Hoffman, Simon Judd
Membranes expertise book assortment includes four of our best-selling titles, supplying the last word reference for each filtration and separation engineer's library. Get entry to over 1500 pages of reference fabric, at a fragment of the cost of the hard-copy books. This CD includes the total ebooks of the subsequent four titles:Singh, Hybrid Membrane structures for Water Purification: structures layout and Operations expertise, 9781856174428 Judd, The MBR ebook: ideas and functions of Membrane Bioreactors for Water and Wastewater therapy , 9781856174817 Judd, Mem. Read more...
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Extra resources for Membranes Technology ebook Collection: Ultimate CD
ED reversal (EDR) units have been deployed to control fouling and reduce cleaning cycles. 21 When the polarity is reversed the diluate compartments become concentrate compartments and vice versa. Although an expensive process, it reduces concentration polarisation, scaling and fouling, and addition of feed-water additives such as antiscalants. ED energy requirements and costs are illustrated in Chapter 5. e. ‘electrodialysis-moderated ion exchange’. ED is generally used to reduce the salt level from 1,000–10,000 mg/l to a few hundred mg/l, whereas EDI is used to purify solutions containing 10–100 mg/l down to 1 mg/l or less.
21,22 Increasingly RO systems are being used to reclaim wastewater at power plants and industrial sites for recycling, and for water pollution control by concentrating waste streams, as discussed in Chapter 3. High-purity water production for pharmaceuticals, beverage, and microelectronics by RO membranes are discussed in Chapter 3. 5 m3 of high-purity water to wash and rinse a 15-cm wafer during the fabrication of microchips. A large semiconductor plant can use 250–300 m3/h of this ultrapure solvent, which is produced by a combination of several unit operations; MF, RO, EDI, ion exchange, ultra-violet sterilisation, membrane degasification, and UF.
Another factor that affects is separation of a macromolecule is its molecular shape. For example, high rejections are achieved for globular proteins as compared to flexible polymers with extended chains, such as polystyrene, polyethylene glycol and dextran. 18,21 It is also used to test the integrity of membrane assembly including membrane seals. According to the capillary theory, the smaller the diameter of the pore filled with water, the harder it is to blow water out of the pore. The bubble point pressure is a direct measurement of the largest pore in the membrane.