MEMS-based circuits and systems for wireless communication by Christian C Enz, Andreas Kaiser

By Christian C Enz, Andreas Kaiser

MEMS-based Circuits and platforms for instant Communication presents complete insurance of RF-MEMS expertise from machine to procedure point. This edited quantity locations emphasis on how approach functionality for radio frequency purposes might be leveraged by means of Micro-Electro-Mechanical structures (MEMS). insurance additionally extends to cutting edge MEMS-aware radio architectures that push the opportunity of MEMS expertise additional forward.
This paintings provides a large review of the know-how from MEMS units (mainly BAW and Si MEMS resonators) to easy circuits, comparable to oscillators and filters, and at last entire structures reminiscent of ultra-low-power MEMS-based radios. Contributions from best specialists all over the world are equipped in 3 components. half I introduces RF-MEMS know-how, units and modeling and features a potential outlook on ongoing advancements in the direction of Nano-Electro-Mechanical structures (NEMS) and phononic crystals. gadget homes and types are offered in a circuit orientated standpoint. half II focusses on layout of digital circuits incorporating MEMS. Circuit layout options particular to MEMS resonators are utilized to oscillators and energetic filters. partially III participants talk about how MEMS can advantageously be utilized in radios to extend their miniaturization and decrease their energy intake. RF platforms equipped round MEMS parts akin to MEMS-based frequency synthesis together with all-digital PLLs, ultra-low strength MEMS-based verbal exchange platforms and a MEMS-based automobile instant sensor node are defined.

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16 Qideal of standard resonators are shown with square dots. The full circular dot at A/p = p 34 is a resonator with the same surface A as the standard resonator with A/p = 105, but holes in the top electrode increase the perimeter p by a factor three. c 2008 IEEE. Reprinted, with permission, from [22] Large resonators have small impedances. Since Rs does not vary much with the size of the resonators, it is logical that it has more impact on low-impedance resonators. 15 also shows the real Qs , extracted directly from the measurements.

12b, “||” means parallel electrical connection, and “Real” and “Imag” denote real and imaginary parts of a complex number, respectively. 16), the critical transconductance, gmc , and operating frequency, ωc , for starting oscillations can be estimated. Using these analytical models for the resonator and circuit, it is possible to highlight how the key resonator components (Q, kt2 , frequency, geometry, and parasitics) affect power consumption in the oscillator circuit. In Fig. 13, the critical transconductance, gmc , is plotted as a function of Q, kt2 , nL, T , f , and R0 , while all other parameters are kept fixed.

17 Qideal vs A/p for resonators with the same surface A, but with different shapes. The p shapes with increasing A/p are triangle, rectangle, ellipse, pentagon, and circle. c 2008 IEEE. Reprinted, with permission, from [22] The last example shows how the model can be used successfully in the design of filters. The equivalent circuit of the ladder filter is built in the same way as for resonators. The resonators are represented with an MBVD circuit with values corresponding to ideal resonators. The necessary elements are then added to model the parasitics.

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