Microbial linear plasmids by Keith F. Chater, Haruyasu Kinashi (auth.), Friedhelm

By Keith F. Chater, Haruyasu Kinashi (auth.), Friedhelm Meinhardt, Roland Klassen (eds.)

Linear plasmids of microbes characterize a heterogenous team of extrachromosomal genetic parts before everything assumed to be infrequent and weird. although, we now comprehend that they're particularly usually happening plasmids in bacterial and eukaryotic species. Viral options to prevent shortening of the linear molecules in the course of replication indicate a typical ancestry. Linear plasmids could be valuable, impartial or unsafe for the respective host; capabilities comprise construction of protein pollutants, particular catabolic features, antibiotic resistance, pathogenicity components, and senescence induction.

Microbial Linear Plasmids constitutes the 1st try to comprehensively gather present wisdom of other kinds of such components, spotlight fresh advancements within the box, and problem the excellence among viruses and linear plasmids.

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54 54 55 8 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abstract Vegetative replication of terminal protein (TP)-capped linear plasmids (and linear chromosomes) of Streptomyces proceeds in two steps: a classical bidirectional replication from an internal origin followed by a novel TP-primed DNA synthesis that patches the resulting single-strand gaps at the 3 ends (“end patching”).

This might permit accelerated evolution compared with unicellular organisms possessing circular chromosomes and plasmids. As pointed out by Volff and Altenbuchner (2000), an exchange of plasmid and chromosomal ends could also provide a different kind of partial diploidy, in which genes present both on the chromosome and on an un-rearranged copy of the plasmid could be maintained in the diploid state through sporulation, with the same possibilities for the preservation of recessive mutations. Why, if linear genomes are beneficial to streptomycetes, are they not a general feature of all bacteria?

The same gene pair encoding a primase/helicase and a ca. 130-aa protein is also found in two ARSs (ori2 and ori3) on the 210-kb linear plasmid pSLA2-L in S. rochei (Mochizuki et al. 2001). The ca. 330-aa proteins are of limited occurrence, but the primase/helicase proteins are widespread, particularly among plasmids and bacteriophages. pSLA2-L contains a third ARS (ori1) adjacent to ori2. ori1 includes an essential gene, repL1, a subsidiary gene, repL2, and a putative replication origin lying about 800 bp from repL1 (Hiratsu et al.

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