By Samuel Silver

Survey of microwave antenna layout difficulties. Circuit kinfolk, reciprocity theorems. Radiation from present distributions. Wave fronts and rays. Scattering and diffraction. Aperture illumination and antenna styles. Microwave transmission traces. Microwave dipole antennas and feeds. Linear array antennas and feeds. Waveguide and horn feeds. Dielectric and metal-plate lenses. Pencil-beam and straightforward fanned-beam antennas. Shaped-beam antennas. Antenna set up difficulties. Antenna measurements suggestions and kit.

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**Extra resources for Microwave Antenna Theory And Design**

**Example text**

30), (230) and separating rear and imaginary parts, one finds (49) These can be ~vritten as r.. [ —~ R’ 20 ‘-) l+ZO + r;,,, = ---~4~2 () y (50a) Zo ‘r+) ’+(r=a’ ‘(w (50b) respectively. It is seen from Eq. (50a) that the curve R/Z~ = constant is a circle with its center on the positive real axis at (R/zo)/ (1 + R/ZO) Every such circle is tangent to the [ine and radius 1/(1 + R/ZO). I’~. = 1 at its point of intersection with the real axis. The circle corresponding to R/ZO = 1 passes through the origin and enc[oses a[l the circles for which R/ZO > 1.

There are many types of charts, of which two, the 1 so-called circle diagrams, will be discussed here. They are especiIrl=l ally suited to lossless lines. ’—Consider first — ----- _ ! _ _ rRe ~he reflection coefficient transformation along a lossless line as ex= cons: pressed by Eq. (45): \ ~(z) = rr]e’(’~z-~,+%). (245) @) Let us set up a complex plane, as I shown in Fig. lent i-llatt. lith corresponding components of r, designated by r,t, and r,,,,. r is then represented by a vector from the origin.

The absorption and scattering cross sections are then both equal to zero. Similar phenomena can be observed ~vith more genre-al types of antennas. The phase betJ~een the primary and secondary induced antenna distributions is determined by the load impedance and the line length. If the load reflection coefficient is unity, the component distributions on the antenna w-ill be comparable in magnitude, and by suitable adjustment of the line length their relative phase can be adjusted to give a minimum scattering muss section.