By Axel Schuessler
Even supposing lengthy outdated, Bernard Karlgrens «Grammata Serica Recensa» (1957) continues to be the best paintings for having a look up heart chinese language (ca. A.D. six hundred) and outdated chinese language (before two hundred B.C.) reconstructions of all graphs that take place in literature from the start of writing (ca. 1250 B.C.) all the way down to the 3rd century B.C. within the current quantity, Axel Schuessler presents a extra present reconstruction of outdated chinese language, restricting it, so far as attainable, to these post-Karlgrenian phonological gains of outdated chinese language that take pleasure in a few consensus between todays investigators. whilst, the updating of the fabric disregards extra speculative theories and recommendations. Schuessler refers to those minimum varieties as «Minimal outdated chinese language» (OCM). He bases OCM on Baxters 1992 reconstructions yet with a few adjustments, normally notational. according to its minimum point, the OCM types are stored so simple as attainable and transcribed in an both basic notation. a few matters in outdated chinese language phonology nonetheless watch for explanation for this reason interpolations and suggestions of restricted foreign money seem during this update.Karlgrens center chinese language reconstructions, as emended via Li Fang-kuei, are extensively stated as issues of reference for ancient types of chinese language in addition to dialects. This emended center chinese language is additionally provided through Schuessler. one other very important addition to Karlgrens paintings is an intermediate layer halfway among the previous and center chinese language sessions often called «Later Han chinese language» (ca. moment century A.D.) the extra layer makes this quantity an invaluable source for these engaged on Han assets, specifically poetry.This publication is meant as a «companion» to the unique «Grammata Serica Recensa» and hence doesn't repeat different details supplied there. concerns resembling English glosses and references to the earliest prevalence of a graph may be seemed up in «Grammata Serica Recensa» itself or in different correct dictionaries.
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Additional resources for Minimal Old Chinese and Later Han Chinese: A Companion to Grammata Serica Recensa (ABC Chinese Dictionary) (Chinese Edition)
The medial w/u belongs to a word's root, hence h6kou words do not mix with kliikou words in phonetic series (see below) and word families. Similarly, Div. IV i also belongs to a word's root. For the description of syllable structure kliikou examples suffice, because the h6kou counterparts are predictable. Karlgren reconstructed MC finals belonging to the four divisions of rime category -an, for instance, as follows : Div. II III IV ~ ~ f~ J! Mand. Mand. MC kiiikou han van yan ngan jiim kjen C jiim kien c '§ guan M guan ~ quan quan *- MC hekou kwan kwan khjwen B khiwen B Some rimes, such as -an, have an additional set of finals with medial j, the so-called ch6ngniil doublets.
2 MC notational systems Today 'MC' usually means Karlgren's 'Ancient Chinese' as emended by Li Fang-kuei (1971; 1974-1975) who simplified Karlgren's MC by eliminating some non-distinctive diacriticshe replaced Karlgren's i by j; he indicated aspiration by h (phj- for Karlgren's p'i-); etc. Those who cite Karlgren/Li have often further eliminated non-contrastive features, such as nonphonemic distinctions between medial wand u after labials (see the note on Transcriptions in the front matter). There are alternative proposals for MC, most notably Pulleyblank 1984; 1991.
Ii ~ MC ~iB Div. III MC Iji C Div. III < OCM *sra? < OCM *rah Retroflection develops under the influence of an adjacent retroflex sound; an earlier OC *r is about the only candidate for triggering retroflection. An r is in the world's languages, including many cognate Tibeto-Burman ones and other languages in the geographic neighborhood, typically a retroflex flap or trill of some sort. Note, for example, Skt. var~a (not varna) 'color', vf~a 'bull'; Skt . §iras nom . 'head', §ir~~as gen. li, WT bkra > modern Tib.