Molecular Endocrinology by Franklyn Bolander (Auth.)

By Franklyn Bolander (Auth.)

This textbook offers a heritage within the fundamentals of molecular endocrinology. a short precis of the sphere is equipped, while the rest of the textual content discusses the molecular facets of hormone motion in chronological order

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H o w e v e r , insulin p r o m o t e s t h e storage o f glucose a n d fatty acids a n d inhibits t h e b r e a k d o w n o f g l y c o g e n a n d triglycerides. It d o e s so b y activat­ ing specific p h o s p h a t a s e s that r e m o v e t h e p h o s p h a t e from e n z y m e s ; that is, it reverses t h e p h o s p h o r y l a t i o n i n d u c e d b y t h e c A M P - d e p e n d e n t protein k i n a s e . Insulin c a n also affect m e t a b o l i s m b y altering substrate flow. F o r e x a m p l e , insulin stimulates t h e u p t a k e o f glucose within cells a n d t h e resulting h i g h levels o f glucose 6 - p h o s p h a t e allosterically activate g l y c o g e n s y n t h a s e (Fig.

10. Copyright © 1983 McGraw-Hill Book Company. 44 2. General Endocrinology 1. Oogenesis In m a l e h u m a n s , s p e r m a t o g e n e s i s requires 1 0 w e e k s to progress from spermatogonia to s p e r m a t o z o a . H o w e v e r , the entire testis is n o t s y n c h r o n i z e d , although short stretches o f the seminiferous tubule are; therefore, b e c a u s e the d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m a l e g a m e t e s is distributed t h r o u g h o u t t h e g o n a d , there is a c o n t i n u o u s supply o f s p e r m a t o z o a .

H u m a n s d o n o t h a v e this l o b e , b u t t h e s e cells are still present, scattered in t h e r e m a i n i n g anterior a n d posterior lobes. In t h e s e l o w e r vertebrates, M S H causes t h e pig­ m e n t granules in m e l a n o c y t e s to disperse so that the skin will darken. B e c a u s e genetic factors are m u c h m o r e i m p o r t a n t in t h e skin color o f m a m m a l s a n d birds, M S H appears to b e less important in t h e s e vertebrates, in w h i c h it transiently increases p i g m e n t synthesis.

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