Neuroendocrinology of Leptin by Ehud Ur

By Ehud Ur

The invention of the adipostatic hormone leptin has remodeled our knowing of the neurobiology of urge for food keep watch over and has helped to set up the organic foundation of weight problems. This quantity units out to attract jointly key beneficial properties of the crucial results of leptin. Contributions from best professionals within the box comprise studies of leptin's activities on hypothalamic peptides, the function of leptin in fasting, its results on reproductive functionality, and proof helping endogenous mind creation of the peptide.

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0 mm; C bar>50 m; D bar>10 m. Arc>Arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus; fx>fornix; 3v>third ventricle. Reprinted with permission from Elmquist et al. [83]. Elmquist 26 medial, submedial, ventral posterior, and lateral dorsal thalamic nuclei. Hybridization was also observed in the medial and lateral geniculate nuclei. Finally, intense hybridization was observed in the Purkinje and granular cell layers of the cerebellum. Extrahypothalamic leptin receptors have also been described in the rodent and human brain by other investigators [32, 37–41].

Reasons. First, it has provided additional evidence that obesity is a disease with a biological basis, including major endocrine and metabolic components, and it has stimulated hormonal and metabolically oriented obesity research. Second, it has demonstrated that molecular biology has reached the study of obesity, ingestive behavior, metabolism and has changed these fields forever. Molecular methods and techniques have now become part of the required tools in obesity research. Third, OB protein has also demonstrated that the neurobiology and neuroendocrinology of ingestion, metabolism and energy balance have been moved to the front of the research agenda.

Hybridization accumulated throughout the arcuate nucleus extending from the retrochiasmatic region to the posterior periventricular region. Moderate hybridization was also observed in the periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, medial mammillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus. Interestingly, we found extrahypothalamic distributions of leptin receptors in the rat brain as well. These regions included the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, the substantia nigra pars compacta and several thalamic nuclei.

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