By Stephen A. Maas
This newly and carefully revised version of the 1988 Artech residence vintage provides you with a complete, up to date therapy of nonlinear microwave and RF circuits. It delivers a present, in-depth figuring out of the idea of nonlinear circuit research with a spotlight on Volterra-series and harmonic-balance tools. You get useful advice in designing nonlinear circuits and modeling solid-state units for nonlinear circuit research through laptop. in addition, you find out how features of such types have an effect on the research of those circuits.
Critical new issues contain microwave heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs), heterojunction FETs (HEMTs), silicon MOSFETs, smooth IC layout ways, new equipment of harmonic-balance research, multitone research equipment, Fourier equipment for multitone difficulties, and synthetic frequency mapping. What’s extra, the second one variation has been up to date to incorporate discussions on nonlinear research of oscillators and layout matters in relation to RF and instant know-how. greater than a hundred and twenty illustrations help key themes all through the ebook.
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Extra info for Nonlinear Microwave and RF Circuits
26) … gn = ζn – 1 ⁄ n We can do the same with the Taylor-series expansion of the Q/V characteristic and the expansion of the C/V characteristic. 29) Having said all this, we should note that determining the g n or Cn coefficients from an expansion of the G(V) or C(V) function is not always practical. Many devices are very linear so these coefficients are small, and small variations in the measured G (V) or C (V) function can cause large errors in the high-degree terms. In this case, it is better to extract these values from indirect measurements; for example, from measurements of harmonics generated by the device.
This characteristic still presents some analytical problems, because its I/V characteristic has a discontinuous derivative at V = 0. The device could, in concept, be operated in such a way that the voltage is always greater than zero, by biasing it at a value V0 great enough that no negative excitation peaks can drive the terminal voltage to zero. 13) where a, again, is a constant, and v is the voltage deviation from the bias point. 13) includes the linear term 2V 0v. Thus, it is rarely possible, in practice, to obtain a true square-law device, or, for that matter, a device having only even-degree terms in its power series; practical devices invariably have at least one odd-order term in their power series.
These approximately circular contours can then be used to select an output load impedance that represents the best trade-off of gain against output power. The contours are generated empirically by connecting various loads to the amplifier and by measuring the gain and output power at each value of load impedance. This process, called load pulling, has many limitations; the most serious practical one is the difficulty of measuring the load impedances at the device terminals. Load pulling has a major theoretical problem as well: the load impedance at harmonics of the excitation frequency can significantly affect circuit performance, but load pulling is concerned primarily with the load impedance at the fundamental frequency.