By Hugh Aldersey-Williams, Simon Briscoe
What precisely are your probabilities of being struck by way of a meteorite? imagine you're having much less intercourse than the French? How excessive will sea degrees really upward thrust? we are living in an more and more doubtful global. There's lots to fret approximately it's always challenging to grasp what to actually panic approximately. yet remain calm! For "Panicology" is the suitable solution to the conundrums and questions that bedevil glossy existence. placing a lit fit to the lies, headlines and statistical twaddle that seeks to frighten us, it explores forty purposes for fear: from binge-drinking to Frankenstein meals, poultry flu to alien abductions - and explores what, if any, impact they'll have in your lifestyles. Why fear in lack of knowledge if you happen to could be a satisfied, trained sceptic?
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Extra resources for Panicology
Logic may reveal to us certain kinds of truth, but it may be necessary to analyse or otherwise re-express our thoughts if we are to see how those truths bear on those thoughts. By the same token, to recognize in the ﬁrst place that there are certain patterns that are characteristic of valid arguments may require that those arguments come in the right form, appropriately manipulated. Opinions on the importance of logic have varied throughout the history of philosophy. For example, the belief that its truths are trivial—that all it can tell us is, for instance, that if A and B are true, then A is true—has recurrently driven logic to the periphery of philosophy.
Sciences such as physics and geometry reveal particular types of truth, physical truths and geometrical truths. ‘[I]t falls to logic’, on the other hand, ‘to discern the laws of truth’ (1997 , p. 325), of truth as such, rather than the truths of some particular domain. Logic captures that which ‘holds with the utmost generality for all thinking, whatever its subject-matter’, and ‘[c]onsequently we can also say: logic is the science of the most general laws of truth’ (1997 , p. ¹⁰ Hence, the attempt to show that arithmetical truths can be deduced solely from logical truths was an effort ‘to ascertain how far one could proceed in arithmetic by inferences alone, with the sole support of those laws of thought that transcend all particulars’ (1967 , p.
192–200; Dummett 1991, chs. 9 and 11; Kenny 1995, ch. 5. Some Historical Preliminaries 23 identity. Such statements inform us that the object which we have got hold of under one description, ‘the number of Fs’, is one and the same object as that which we have got hold of under another, ‘the number of Gs’. Frege’s deﬁnition of equinumerosity tells us that when the ‘Just as many . ’ propositions are true, then so is the following: The class of Fs is equinumerous with the class of Gs. An identity statement that this suggests is: The class of concepts that are equinumerous to the concept F is identical with the class of concepts that are equinumerous to the concept G.