By Bei Yang
Tones are the main tough element of studying chinese language as a moment language, and L2 freshmen’ perceptual different types vary in vital and engaging methods from these of local audio system. This booklet explores the connection among tone notion and creation between local audio system and non-native newbies as illustrated within the experiments the writer carried out with local audio system, actual freshmen and background freshmen, all of whom have been established on their skill to provide tones evidently and to understand eighty one synthesized tones in quite a few contexts. The experiments convey that every staff approaches tones otherwise in regards to either check in (tonal point) and contour (tonal shape). the consequences additionally demonstrate how 3 forms of cues – acoustic, mental and contextual – effect non-native audio system’ tone belief and production.
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Extra resources for Perception and Production of Mandarin Tones by Native Speakers and L2 Learners
Tone sandhi: Patterns across the Chinese dialects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , and Y. Xu. 2006. Production of weak elements in speech-evidence from F0 patterns of neutral tone in standard Chinese. Phonetica 63: 47–75. , and Shinan Lu. 1996. Yizhong Gaoqingxidu, Gaozirandu de Hanyu Wenyu Zhuanhuan Xitong. Shengxue Xuebao 21(4): 639–647. N. 1985. The geometry of phonological features. Phonology Yearbook 2: 225–252. Duanmu, S. 1990. A formal study of syllable, tone, stress and domain in Chinese languages.
2004; Wu 2005). “‘Categorical boundary effects’ cannot be explained entirely by psychophysical responses. In other words, the increased sensitivity to differences between the members of the pairs that straddle category boundaries at least partially reflects phonetic coding into linguistic categories that may, …, be language-specific” (Wood 1976; Halle et al. 2004: 415). Categorical perception is related to linguistic category, phonetic category, and psychophysical responses, and it connects physical properties to real-world segmental or suprasegmental categories.
English intonation patterns do not cause much semantic differences. Pierrehumbert (1980) illustrated five intonation patterns for the word “Anna” in the first chapter. The first four patterns have a high pitch for the first syllable and a low pitch for the second, indicating a response or statement. These patterns have the potential to exhibit pitch pattern variation. 1 Why is it Difficult for Non-native Speakers to Learn Mandarin Tones? 31 of the first syllable may rise a little bit to indicate the speaker is incredulous; the pitch rising at the end again indicates that the answer is incomplete.