By Robert F. Denno, T. John Perfect (auth.), Robert F. Denno, T. John Perfect (eds.)
Planthoppers contain one of the most devastating pests of significant agricultural plants during the international. One species, the rice brown planthopper, is one of the such a lot economically vital pests in Asia. In earlier a long time, executive regulations inspired the keep watch over of rice planthoppers with artificial insecticides, a tactic which promoted insecticide resistance and infrequently ended in the pesticide-induced resurgence of pest populations. to discourage planthopper outbreaks, a extra ecologically sound administration technique is being applied, one according to an intensive research of inhabitants dynamics, normal enemies, and the genetics of host plant and insecticide edition. within the average habitats of North the United States and Europe, scientists have extensively utilized planthoppers as version organisms to check ecological and evolutionary concept. The end result of those various stories is an exceptionally scattered literature on planthoppers that hasn't ever been synthesized from an ecological point of view. This quantity summarizes what's recognized approximately planthopper ecology and organic keep watch over. It takes a theoretical technique but is deeply taken with the applying of concept to the sensible difficulties of pest management.
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Additional info for Planthoppers: Their Ecology and Management
R. Wilson low, oceanic island records for delphacids were excluded from this analysis. Statistical significance was evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U test, which was performed both with all families included and with those providing fewer than five records excluded. Suppose, as seems probable from the fossil evidence, that the primitive families are older than the angiosperms, whereas the younger families diverged contemporaneously with the angiosperms. If the fulgoroids diversified in tandem with the vascular plants over this period, we might expect the earlier-diverging families to show an elevated proportion of records from plant groups that became distinct before the angiosperms did, such as ferns and most groups of gymnosperms.
Hemitropis tatianae Emeljanov Hemitropis sp. Kirbyana pagana Melichar Kuvera ligustri Matsumura Microledrida arida Caldwell Microledridafuscata Van Duzee Planthopper taxon Appendix 1.
Higher planthoppers have a "fulgoroid ovipositor," in which a piercing, excavating, or raking structure is formed from the gonapophyses of the eighth segment; the gonapophyses of the ninth segment may be paired and lobate or reduced (Muir 1923; Stephan 1975; Asche 1987). The families Derbidae, Meenoplidae, Kinnaridae, Achilidae, Dictyopharidae, and Fulgoridae possess a more primitive, "egg deposition" version of this ovipositor; they cover or cement the eggs rather than inserting them. 6). The most advanced ovipositor type, found in the Issidae (some), Nogodinidae, Ricaniidae, Flatidae, Hypochthonellidae, Tropiduchidae, and Gengidae is a piercing-excavating ovipositor in which the gonapophyses of the eighth abdominal segment function in excavating cavities for egg deposition in tough woody tissues.