Power system protection by Electricity Council

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G. busbar protection), for which case current transformers at each circuit end are paralleled on to the differential current relay. Protected winding 0 Fig. 1E principle Current-balance system using ' l circulating current Protection principles and components 27 Circulating balance methods of this kind are widely used for apparatus protection where current transformers are within the same substation area and interconnecting leads between CTs are short. This is not the case for feeder circuits and the current balance principle requires some modification to permit comparison of lower power levels over the interconnecting pilot wire circuit.

Tripping at end A is prevented by relay R which is operated, via the signalling channel from relay S at end B. End B does not wish to trip because Z2 is not operated (the fault is 'behind' the relay). Clearly, tripping via relay Z2 must be delayed sufficiently to ensure that the blocking signal is received and that relay R has operated. To ensure stability for power reversals following through fault clearance, 30 Protection principles and components network D in Fig. 1G(b) delays operation of relay R from the local end.

F. carrier-current protection schemes. The output of a capacitor voltage device is determined largely by the value of capacitance adopted. For practical reasons this limits the output with reasonable accuracy to about 200 VA. s following fault inception can introduce serious errors in transformation. t is a device tuned to system frequency; the use of a capacitor divider eliminates this tuned circuit and gives accurate transient performance. The output circuit to the relays is still derived from the lower capacitor but is associated with a voltage amplifier to provide the correct voltage and power levels for relay equipment.

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