Power System Protection. Vol.2: Systems and Methods by The Institution of Engineering and Technology

By The Institution of Engineering and Technology

Contents comprise: safeguard symbols utilized in circuit diagrams, feeder security for distance platforms and pilot cord and carrier-current structures, and overvoltage protection.Also available:Power approach safety three: program - ISBN 9780852968376Power procedure defense four: electronic safety and signaling - ISBN 9780852968383The establishment of Engineering and know-how is without doubt one of the world's best specialist societies for the engineering and know-how neighborhood. The IET publishes greater than a hundred new titles each year; a wealthy mixture of books, journals and magazines with a again catalogue of greater than 350 books in 18 diversified topic parts together with: -Power & strength -Renewable power -Radar, Sonar & Navigation -Electromagnetics -Electrical size -History of expertise -Technology administration

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Fig. 5A Application of instantaneous high-set relay Better results are achieved by the use of relays having a designed immunity to the transient offset condition. Two arrangements of relays and auxiliary components to achieve this object are shown in Fig. 5B and C. 42 Overcurrent protection Setting control / I I Armature relay I Fig. 5B 1 Transient free high-set instantaneous relay Fig. 5B shows a relay in which the overreach is limited to about 5% for a primary system X/R ratio of 5. g. 200-800% or 500-2000%.

To 1-5% of rating. The relay will normally have a saturating characteristic so that the measured burden at rating will be less than proportional to that at setting. Relays of this type are of the definite-time variety. They have a back-up function, supplementary to the main protection, and are therefore given a time delay of several seconds, long enough to ensure that they do not interfere with the normal discriminative protection. Although not suitable for grading with other forms of protection, sensitive earth-fault relays may be graded as an independent system.

Neutral earth point) behind the relaying point. a. f, position; the zone of operation extends from 45 ° leading to 135 ° lagging. The conditions are shown in Fig. 3C. This arrangement, often referred to as the 45 ° connection, is suitable for all feeders. It is essential for transformer feeders or where the system earthing is such that a 2-1-1 distribution of currents is likely to occur. The universal suitability of the 45 ° connection, with a minimum of risk of incorrect operation, makes this the most suitable arrangement for general application.

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