By John R. Leyendecker MD, Jeffrey J. Brown, Elmar M. Merkle MD
Now in its moment version, this completely illustrated quantity is a realistic, problem-oriented "how-to" advisor to appearing and reading stomach and pelvic MRI reports. Practical advisor to stomach and Pelvic MRI offers the required knowledge for optimizing photo caliber and protocols and describes particular concepts, together with MR angiography, MR cholangiopancreatography, MR urography, MRI of the gastrointestinal tract, and obstetrical MRI. a piece on interpretation describes MRI appearances of a hundred and one stomach and pelvic abnormalities, provides differential diagnoses, and provides suggestions on analyzing preoperative MRI reviews. extra chapters exhibit basic MRI anatomy, resolution commonly asked questions, and demystify MRI acronyms and terminology. This version comprises new imaging ideas and data at the liver, the kidney, and nephrogenic syndrome.
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Extra resources for Practical Guide to Abdominal and Pelvic MRI
A zipper artifact along the frequency-encoding axis may result from stimulated echoes due to inadequate spoiling of residual transverse magnetization. However, the most commonly seen zipper artifact results from external sources of radiofrequency noise such as electronic equipment. This artifact differs from those discussed earlier in that it occurs along the phase-encoding axis at a location away from the point of zero frequency. In other words, the extraneous noise is mapped in the image according to its frequency.
The MR signal received from the image slice originates from all protons, even those outside the field-of-view. However, all protons contributing to the image are assumed to fall within the assigned range of frequencies. 4 IMAGING ARTIFACTS Artifact Eliminated or Reduced by Chemical shift Increasing receiver bandwidth Wraparound Phase oversampling; saturation bands Susceptibility Shortening TE; using spin echo, FSE, or HASTE; increasing receiver bandwidth Truncation Increasing spatial resolution in the direction of artifact Respiratory motion Breath-hold imaging; respiratory triggering/gating; retrospective k-space reordering; fast imaging; saturation bands Vascular pulsation Gradient moment nulling (flow compensation); changing TR; saturation bands; cardiac gating Zipper (extraneous RF) Removing source of RF contamination Parallel imaging Increasing FOV along phaseencoding axis, using autocalibrated methods Dielectric Decreasing ETL, using GRE, image on lower field strength magnet ETL, echo train length; FOV, field-of-view; FSE, fast spin echo; GRE, gradient echo; HASTE, half-Fourier acquisition single shot turbo spin echo; RF, radio frequency; TE, echo time; TR, repetition time.
Abdominal and pelvic MR images may be degraded by various artifacts. Not all artifacts must be eliminated, but they must be correctly identified to avoid confusion with genuine disease. REFERENCES 1. Sodickson DK, Manning WJ. Simultaneous acquisition of spatial harmonics (SMASH): fast imaging with radiofrequency coil arrays. Magn Reson Med 1997;38:591–603. 2. Pruessmann KP, Weiger M, Scheidegger MB, Boesiger P. SENSE: sensitivity encoding for fast MRI. Magn Reson Med 1999; 42:952–962. 3. Larkman DJ, Nunes RG.