By Weiyan Pan, Kai Li (auth.)
This ebook bargains with the SLF/ELF wave propagation, an incredible department of electromagnetic conception. The SLF/ELF wave propagation idea is definitely utilized in earthquake electromagnetic radiation, submarine conversation, thunderstorm detection, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics. The propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves is brought in numerous media just like the earth-ionospheric waveguide, ionospheric plasma, sea water, earth, and the boundary among diverse media or the stratified media. functions within the earthquake electromagnetic radiation and the submarine communications also are addressed. This e-book is meant for scientists and engineers within the fields of radio propagation and EM thought and applications.
Prof. Pan is a professor at China examine Institute of Radiowave Propagation in Qingdao (China).
Dr. Li is a professor at Zhejiang college in Hangzhou (China).
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Extra info for Propagation of SLF/ELF Electromagnetic Waves
19), we obtain ν(ν + 1) = k 2 a 2 Sn2 = k 2 a 2 1 − Cn2 . 27) In practical wave modes in the Earth–ionosphere waveguide or cavity, the parameter Cn is not close to 1. Considering that the Earth’s radius is very large, in SLF range, k 2 a 2 1, it is seen that the parameter |ν| is a large number. Then, we write 1 ν = kaSn − . 28) When the parameter |ν| is very large, namely |ν| 1, while the angle θ is not close to 0 and π, the Legendre function of the first kind is approximated by Pν cos (π − θ ) ≈ = 2 πν sin θ 1 2πν sin θ 1 2 cos 1 2 ν+ π 1 (π − θ ) − 2 4 iπ iπ e−ikaSn π+ 4 · eikaSn θ + eikaSn (2π−θ)− 2 .
Here f is the operating frequency in kHz. The third model is the international reference ionosphere model, in which the electron density profiles vary with the height in summer daytime and winter nighttime as shown in Fig. 7 (Rawer et al. 1978). The collision frequency varying with the height is taken as Eq. 197) for the exponential model. For the above three ionosphere models, following the computational method and process addressed in this section, the modal equation for the SLF/ELF ranges is solved readily, and the characteristic parameters of each mode can be calculated easily.
This is resulted by the fact that the higher the ground conductivity is, the larger the reflections are, and the less the absorption loss of SLF/ELF waves are. It is noted that the effect by the geomagnetic field is not considered in the computations in Figs. 12. Namely, the ionosphere is regarded as a one-dimensionally planar stratified isotropic plasma in the above computations. In lower frequency ranges, it is necessary to consider the effects by the geomagnetic field, and the ionosphere is regarded as an anisotropic plasma, which is characterized by using a 3 × 3 matrix.