By Horst Aichinger, Joachim Dierker, Sigrid Joite-Barfuß, Manfred Säbel
This thoroughly up-to-date moment variation of Radiation publicity and snapshot caliber in X-ray Diagnostic Radiology offers the reader with specific tips at the optimization of radiological imaging. the fundamental actual rules of diagnostic radiology are first provided intimately, and their program to scientific difficulties is then rigorously explored. the ultimate part is a complement containing tables of knowledge and graphical depictions of X-ray spectra, interplay coefficients, features of X-ray beams, and different points proper to sufferer dose calculations. furthermore, a complementary CD-ROM features a basic Excel dossier database protecting those facets that may be utilized in the reader’s personal courses. This publication may be a useful relief to clinical physicists whilst acting calculations with regards to sufferer dose and picture caliber, and also will turn out priceless for diagnostic radiologists and engineers.
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Extra info for Radiation Exposure and Image Quality in X-Ray Diagnostic Radiology: Physical Principles and Clinical Applications
1997) 2. XCOM (Berger and Hubbell 1987) The EPDL97 database provides the atomic cross sections, the incoherent scattering function S and the atomic form factor F. Values of m/r for different elements and compounds must be calculated from these data. The XCOM database, which has been updated to 1999 (Hubbell, personal communication), provides values of m/r for elements and compounds. Comparisons of the two databases carried out by different authors (Boone and Chavez 1996; Hubbell 1999; Schmidt 2001) have demonstrated that there are only minor deviations at low photon energies.
The interaction cannot take place with respect to a given electron unless hn > EB for that electron. The smaller hn is, the more likely is the occurrence of the photoelectric effect, provided that hn > EB. The photon is totally absorbed in the interaction. 001 Fig. 1 MeV, gradually decreasing to about 1 at 5 MeV. Therefore, in the energy region hn 100 keV, where the photoelectric effect becomes most important, the relations: spe / Z4 ðhnÞ 3 are approximately valid. 000 Photon energy in MeV Fig.
Rayleigh scattering is called ‘coherent’ because the photon is scattered by the combined action of the bound electrons. The interaction is elastic in the sense that the photon loses only a negligible fraction of its energy, since the recoil is by the entire atom including the nucleus, rather than by an individual electron as in the Compton effect. Therefore, Rayleigh scattering contributes nothing to the transfer of photon energy to matter. 20) where r0 is again the classical electron radius as in Eq.