Schlieren and Shadowgraph Methods in Heat and Mass Transfer by Pradipta Kumar Panigrahi

By Pradipta Kumar Panigrahi

Schlieren and Shadowgraph tools in warmth and Mass Transfer lays out the basics of refractive index dependent imaging suggestions, optical configurations, snapshot research, and 3 dimensional reconstructions. the current monograph goals at temperature and focus measurements in obvious media utilizing ray bending results in a variable refractive index box. facts research strategy for three-d reconstruction of temperature and focus box utilizing pictures at diverse view angles is gifted. attempt circumstances illustrating the validation of the quantitative research strategy are presented.

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26) zi where the primes denote differentiation with respect to z. Application of the variational principle to Eq. 28 are second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations for x(z) and y(z). The four constants of integration required to solve these equations come from the boundary conditions at the entry plane of the chamber. These are the co-ordinates xi = x(z i ) and yi = y(z i ) of the entry point as well as the local derivatives xi = x (z i ) and yi = y (z i ). The solution of the two differential equations yields two orthogonal components of the deflection of the light ray at the exit plane along with its slope and curvature.

The image of the flame with a filter that 52 3 Rainbow Schlieren Fig. 4 a Base image recorded in 1D color schlieren when the filter has color variation in the vertical direction; b schlieren image of a candle flame Fig. 5 a Base image recorded in 1D color schlieren when the filter has color variation in the horizontal direction; b schlieren image of a candle flame has horizontal color strips (Fig. 4) shows vivid color patterns. This trend is expected because density gradients within the flame are strong in the vertical direction and the light beam is deflected across a range of colors.

However, such an arrangement can lead to camera saturation. It is preferable to allow image formation on a screen and record the image at parallel incidence. In a graded filter arrangement, the filter itself acts as the screen and the camera records the image directly from it. In this approach, the filter needs to be calibrated for light intensity as a function of beam displacement at the filter location. This step is conveniently carried out when the test cell is undisturbed and the filter, mounted on a vertical traverse, moves relative to the spot of light.

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