Separation Methods for Waste and Environmental Applications by Jack Watson

By Jack Watson

Relates how you can eliminate contaminants from effluent streams. The publication discusses separation of environmental toxins - enriching, stripping, rationalization, benefication, remediation, removing, focus, purification, and extra - and evaluations either tried-and-true and more moderen tools. It covers classical in addition to newly rising technique of setting apart business waste and by-products from environmental streams.

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One common way to construct such resin particles involves first producing very small, and preferably uniform size, particles. These small particles can then be clustered into larger overall size particles. This results in two principal size pores: small pores within the small particles, and larger pores between the small particles within the clusters. This is similar to the structure of zeo- me 42 CHAPTER 2 FIGURE 4 Micro-pore and macro-pore structures of adsorbents and ion exchange materials. Example structure of larger particles that are clusters of porous smaller particles.

Shows the concentration in the fluid exiting the bed as a function of time. Note that there is no solute in the fluid until breakthrough occurs. Then the concentration rises to the feed concentration. This is the type of operation covered most extensively in this book. In more realistic cases, the leading edge of the front in the bed and the breakthrough curve exiting the bed look like S-shaped curves rather than vertical steps. Since adsorption operations usually are not steady-state operations, the adsorbent bed must be replaced or regenerated after it is used (sufficiently loaded).

With only modest difficulty and expense, however, other polar molecules can be attached to silica gels with polar or silane bonds. Such attached molecules can incorporate a variety of specific chemical groups which completely change the adsorptive properties of silica gels; some attached groups can even make the silica gel hydrophobic. Silica gels are also useful solid substrates for incorporating ligands that are highly selective for individual solutes such as metal ions. Many ligands can be easily attached to silica through silane bonds.

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