By Sabra L. Klein, Craig Roberts
Why intercourse matters
Among human and nonhuman animals, the superiority and depth of an infection usually is greater in men than women and should mirror adjustments in publicity in addition to susceptibility to pathogens. increased immunity between ladies is a double-edged sword during which it truly is necessary opposed to infectious ailments yet is unsafe when it comes to elevated improvement of autoimmune ailments.
The current e-book seriously studies the evolutionary beginning and the useful mechanisms chargeable for sexual dimorphism in line with an infection. It emphasizes the worth of studying responses in either ladies and men to enhance our figuring out approximately host-pathogen interactions in either sexes.
The participants are specialists of their particular disciplines which variety from microbiology and immunology to genetics, pathology, and evolutionary biology.
The booklet goals at bringing perception to the therapy and administration of infectious illnesses; it delineates parts the place wisdom is missing and highlights destiny avenues of research.
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Additional resources for Sex Hormones and Immunity to Infection
Type 1 diabetes, RA, and multiple sclerosis) (Chatenoud et al. 2001; Kukreja et al. 2002; Leipe et al. 2005). Excessive activity of Tregs can inhibit normal immune response against tumor and pathogen. Increasing evidence suggests that estrogen is a potential regulatory factor in expansion of CD4þCD25þ T cells at both physiological and pharmacological range. Exogenous estrogen exposure of mice as well as pregnancy results in increased frequency of CD4þCD25þ T cells in the spleen, lymph nodes, and blood compared with nonestrogen or nonpregnant controls (Aluvihare et al.
Microbes Infect 5(14):1317 1327 Ferguson MM, McDonald FG (1985) Oestrogen as an inhibitor of human NK cell cytolysis. FEBS Lett 191(1):145 148 Fernandez Lago L, Rodriguez Tarazona E, Vizcaino N (1999) Differential secretion of interleu kin 12 (IL 12) subunits and heterodimeric IL 12p70 protein by CD 1 mice and murine macrophages in response to intracellular infection by Brucella abortus. J Med Microbiol 48(12):1065 1073 Finberg RW, Re F, Popova L, Golenbock DT, Kurt Jones EA (2004) Cell activation by Toll like receptors: role of LBP and CD14.
Splenic DCs stimulated with GM-CSF and IL-4 and exposed to high pregnancy levels of estrogen (500 2,000 pg ml 1) have decreased secretion of IFN-g, IL-12, and TNF-a (Liu et al. 2002). 4 Natural Killer Cells NK cells (CD3 CD16þCD56þ or CD3 CD16 CD56þ in humans and CD3þCD49bþ in mice) are large granular lymphocytes with the ability to lyze pathogen-infected cells and certain tumor cells. Estrogen decreases NK cell activity both in vivo and in vitro (Baral et al. 1995; Ferguson and McDonald 1985; Screpanti et al.