By Stefan C.W. Krauter
This e-book completely examines the technical parameters of photovoltaic platforms, and appraises their web power stability from construction, operation and upkeep, to recycling. related functionality and yield research is utilized to optical, thermal, and electric parameters and interfaces. Professor Krauter demonstrates how actual yield calculations, optimum procedure functionality, and new prototypes reduction in expense aid. Examples, tables and figures are included.
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Extra info for Solar electric power generation - photovoltaic energy systems : modeling of optical and thermal performance, electrical yield, energy balance, effect on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions
Exploitation rate of US oil-well drillings since 1900. Introduction 13 An interesting aspect can be observed in the price development: in the same time period when the exploitation rate of oil drillings in the US decreased (to virtually zero) in the mid seventies (see Fig. 10), the oil price on the world market exploded (see Fig. 9), a similar (but less severe) effect could be observed in the mid forties. ) and destruction of cultural possessions and environment (acid rain), too (see Hohmeyer 1989).
Cross-section of a fixture-compound for frameless PV modules (after Schmid 1988). Fig. 16. Roof-mounted PV generator with frameless modules and fixture compounds. 36 Solar Electric Power Generation As well as the need for less material, handling is also advantageous since fixing and screwing is now at the front of the panel. A positive side effect is that less dust and dirt accumulation occurs at the edges of the module. Layers of dirt are washed away at rainfall, while framed modules tend to cause an accumulation of dirt which grows from the edges (at the frame boundary) to the center of the front surface of the module.
2. , as heat. This, and further losses, define the so called “spectral sensitivity” or “spectral response” of a solar cell (see below). 3. 7 V for silicon. This theoretical conversion efficiency is reduced in reality by different loss mechanisms: C Optical losses, as reflection and shadowing losses caused by the front contacts and also losses by non-absorbed (transmitted) irradiance. 12). ” The “internal quantum efficiency” neglects reflection losses on the surface of the solar cell, while the “external quantum efficiency” includes them.