By Peter Nolan
This article offers a different exam of the connection among the kingdom and marketplace in China's monetary improvement over numerous centuries. Its research is positioned within the wider context of debates approximately technical growth within the pre-modern global, concerning the impression of Western imperialism, concerning the function of the kingdom within the financial improvement of terrible international locations and within the transition of former communist nations from Stalinist platforms of political financial system. Peter Nolan is the co-author of Re-thinking Social Economics and writer of The Political economic system of Collective Farms.
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Extra resources for State and Market in the Chinese Economy: Essays on Controversial Issues
The types of goods carried in long-distance trade fell into the following categories: first, essential goods that could only be obtained in certain areas (sugar, tea, mulberry leaves, salt, precious metals, and grain for Beijing and disaster-stricken areas) (Myers, 1980, p. g. , p. 92). At China's level of technical development, then, prior to the 1840s, its internal trade was highly developed. Du Halde, for example, a Jesuit writing in 1730s noted: The riches peculiar to each province, and the facility of conveying merchandise, by means of rivers and canals, have rendered the Politics, Population and Economic Change 19 domestic trade of the empire always very flourishing .
Absence of Tariff Autonomy Deprived the Chinese Government of a Crucial Weapon with which to Promote Economic Development The Argument: From 1843 to 1929 China's tariffs were administered by a foreign-run customs authority. Import duties were never allowed to rise above about 4 per cent of the value of imported goods China and the World Economy, 1840s-1940s 41 (Allen and Donnithorne, 1954, p. 43) and after 1898 a substantial amount of the import duty was used to pay off foreign loans and indemnities.
5 per cent per annum (from the fourteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century). 5 per cent from 1873 to 1913 (Perkins, 1969, p. 214). , p. 216). , p. 215). ). Agriculture Agricultural technology hardly altered from the mid-nineteenth century to the 1940s, with little impact of modern means of production (Feuerwerker, 1977, p. 43). Late Qing China had come close to the 'arable frontier' under traditional technology. Moreover, the possibilities of expanding the irrigated area under traditional technology were limited.