By Julia Kirk Blackwelder
In Blackwelder’s well-documented tale and obviously argued research, the background of African American attractiveness schooling exhibits how succeeding generations of black girls, within the face of likely overwhelming odds, freed themselves from a lifetime of carrier to whites and complex into dignified monetary independence notwithstanding paintings that they and their consumers valued for its intangible worth.
Read or Download Styling Jim Crow: African American Beauty Training During Segregation PDF
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Additional info for Styling Jim Crow: African American Beauty Training During Segregation
Through the 1930s all major African American ﬁrms marketed petroleumbased preparations from scalp conditioners to oils employed to straighten or “press” hair when used in combination with heated combs. Similar to coldcream conditioners, hot-oil treatments addressed various scalp conditions, particularly dandruff. The beautician heated a compound to a liquid state but took care not to get the oil so hot as to burn the client’s scalp. Sectioning the hair with combs and clips, the practitioner applied the oil a little at a time and rubbed it into the scalp in a massagelike fashion.
But because they had gas stoves and this, what I call axle grease, the shops were always smoking. . ”39 By the 1950s a variety of chemical relaxers had replaced the straightening comb of the earlier years, but heat remained an essential part of setting hair from the 1920s onward. The marcel iron, also heated, crimped hair by pressing it over a rounded surface as does the contemporary curling iron. After World War II individual metal curlers supplemented with hair dryers largely replaced the marcel iron, allowing the beautician to set the entire head at once.
While working in New Orleans, Burnett contacted members of the Louisiana association of African American teachers who were holding their statewide meeting in the city. , and 50 cts. ”32 The world of Alice C. Burnett, of other traveling company representatives, and of hairdressers changed as industry regulations came into play at the end of the 1920s. The costs of equipping a beauty salon in the 1920s remained low in comparison with some other retail trades: combs, irons, a small stove, a chair, and a basin or sink were the basic requirements.